Summary of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Gynostemma Pentaphyllum is a plant which is sometimes referred to as either 'Southern Ginseng' or 'Cheap Ginseng' as it was used as a cheap substitute for Panax Ginseng (as aside from Codonopsis Pilosula, which was used as an adulterant for Panax Ginseng to sell it at the normal price but cut costs). Surprisingly, Gynostemma has a good content of Ginsenosides that were once thought to be wholly unique to Panax Ginseng. As such, the biological effects of Gynostemma and Panax seem to be quite similar except Gynostemma may be more anti-diabetic (due to the unique Gypenosides in Gynostemma, that are not in Panax).
There are limited human studies at the moment, as most studies are attempting to delineate the large amount of Gypenosides in this herb to see which ones can be seen as the 'active' compounds. Currently, we have two human studies suggesting that a tea made from Gynostemma can be used alongside standard anti-diabetic therapy and augment the efficacy of it over time (known as adjunct therapy).
Most of its 'beneficial' effects beyond the diabetic effects (which are mediated by a possible mix of AMPK activation and PTP1B inhibition; the amount each contributes to the overall effects unknown) come from inducing antioxidant enzymes and protecting cells from oxidative damage over time. There seems to be a motif where preloading and chronic loading is very protective at low doses, and acute supplementation or rehabilitation (taking the supplement after the stressor) appears to be less effective. As such, the health effects of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum appear to be more prophylactic rather than rehabilitative or therapeutic.
This herb is also touted for youthfulness and longevity, but neither claim has been explored. Additionally, the anti-cancer effects are still in beginning stages of research but the effects appear to be very similar in many cell lines; some compound in the Gypenoside fragment may be an inducer of p53, a tumor suppressor gene, as the downstream events associated with p53 activity have been noted repeatedly (although direct kinetics between Gypenosides and p53 have not yet been investigated; this is a likely theory but not established)
Overall, this is a more anti-diabetic Panax Ginseng; the downside is that the other benefits associated with Panax Ginseng (adaptogenic, cognitive enhancing, anti-fatigue) have not yet been assessed properly with Gynostemma Pentaphyllum.
Tired of all the misinformation spread by supplement companies?
Learn what works, what's a waste, and how to achieve your health goals with our free supplement mini-course.
Things To Know & Note
Also Known As
Southern Ginseng, Jiao Gu-lan, Giao-Co-Lam (Tea), jiaogulan
Goes Well With
Grape Seed Extract (for alleviating central insulin resistance)
Caution NoticeExamine.com Medical Disclaimer
Has not yet been tested for drug-drug interactions in regards to P450 enzymes
How to Take Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
Although not too many trials have been conducted, the two studies noting that Gynostemma Pentaphyllum could be useful to help diabetes used 6g of the leaves (dry weight) and made tea from that. The leaves themselves are a good source of both classes of active ingredients (the saponins, of which Gypenosides are a subset, and the flavonoids), and this is currently the best known dosage to use.
Alternatively, due to the similarity between Gynostemma pentaphyllum gypenosides and Panax ginseng ginsenosides they may have a similar active level for isolated alkaloids. 100-500mg gypenosides may be a good educated guess to start from.
Need guidance?If you need something quick and easy to let you see which supplements do what to your health (and vice versa), check out our A-to-Z Supplement Reference.
If you are looking for clear directions that will save you time and money and help improve your health, then you need our Supplement Guides.
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects gynostemma pentaphyllum has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Notable||Very High See 2 studies|
|Notable||Very High See 2 studies|
|Notable||Very High See 2 studies|
|Minor||- See study|
|Minor||- See study|
|Minor||- See study|
|-||- See study|
|-||- See study|
|-||- See study|
|-||- See study|
Studies Excluded from Consideration
Scientific Research on Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Southern Ginseng) of the Cucurbitaceae family is a plant that has usage in Traditional Chinese Medicine (where it is referred to as Jiao Gu-lan) for cough, wheeze, chronic bronchitis and infectious hepatitis. It seems to possess ginsenoside-like saponins despite not being related to Panax Ginseng (True Ginseng), and tea that contains higher level of Panax's ginsenosides are sweeter (which make it fairly popular). It is considered a longevity herb with herbs in the Gynostemma genus referred to as herbs of immortality.
A herb that itself has a traditional use mostly as a tea, it has sometimes been called 'Cheap Ginseng' since it has many of the same effects and was cheaper (Panax Ginseng has a history where the supply was sequestered by the upper classes, which raised the market value)
The main Gypenoside class of bioactives (those unique to Gynostemma Pentaphyllum) include:
Gypenbiosides A and B
Gypenosides GC1 to GC7 (2α,3β,12β,20(S)-dammarane type structure)
Malonyl Gypenosides III and VIII (Malonyl Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd, respectively)
Gynostemosides A-E (Megastigmane compounds based on the backbone of 3,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-β-ionol)
Gypenosides are Gypenosapogenin or Ginsenoside structures (the former pictured below) attached to sugars; as such, they are Gypenosapogenin or Ginsenoside Glycosides (Glycoside merely being a term to refer to 'attached to sugar(s)'; a storage form of sorts)
With other notable saponin structures as:
Damulin A and B, ranging from 0.09-0.1% dry weight and increasing up to 0.7-0.9% when heat treated (autoclaving at 121°C); a heat treated extract with high Damulin content being called 'Actiponin'. The true names of these compounds being diglycosides of 2α,3β,12β–trihydroxydammar-20(22)-E,24-diene and 2α,3β,12β-trihydroxydammar-20,24-diene, respectively
(20S)-dammarane-24(25)-ene-3β,20,21-tetrol and (20S,24S)-dammarane-25(26)-ene-3β,12β,20,24-tetrol
Dammarane-(E)-20(22)-ene-3β,12β,25-triol and 20(S)-dammarane-25(26)-ene-3β,12β,20-triol
(20S,23S)-3β,20-dihydroxyldammarane-24-ene-21-oic acid-21, 23-lactone (and its R,R enantiomer)
Some saponins in Gynostemma Pentaphyllum are literally the same Ginsenosides found in Panax Ginseng, with other saponins being more generalized among herbs
And various other non-saponin compounds:
Carotenoids (cis-neoxanthin, violaxanthin, auoxanthin, luteoxanthin, lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene)
Chlorophyll compounds (Chlorophyll A (113.8ug/g) A'(11.0ug/g) B (287.9ug/g) and B'(11.1ug/g), Pheophytin A (2508.3ug/g) A'(111.2ug/g) B(319.6ug/g) B'(13.2ug/g); hydroxy derivatives including hydroxypheophytin A (88.6ug/g) A'(66.5ug/g) B(11.2ug/g) B'(8.5ug/g) and hydroxychlorophyll A (23.8ug/g) and B (15.0ug/g) as well as pyropheophytin A (76.0ug/g)
3,5,3′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (From the leaves)
Some trace minerals
With some bioactive polysaccharides:
PGSP at 1.5% dry weight; water-soluble and a structure of glucose:galactose:arabinose:rhamnose:galacturonic acid:xylose:mannose:glucuronic acid in a 23.2:18.9:10.5:7.7:4.7:3.9:3.1:1.2 ratio
In general, ethanolic root extracts are concentrated for saponin and triterpenoid structures (first two subsections) while hot water extracts of the leaves (teas) are concentrated for flavonoids; there will still be flavonoids in the roots and saponins in the leaves though; the polysaccharides are in the root mostly and confer a caloric content as they are carbohydrates
When assessing overall quantities of molecule classes, saponins have been found in the range of 64.57-132.6mg/g (6.4-13.2% Saponins wet weight) which are concentrated in ethanolic extracts. Of these, 2.4% (total weight of all parts) are dammarane-type saponins, with 75% of these dammarane-type saponins belonging to the class of Gypenosides (so effectively, Gynostemma Pentaphyllum is around 2% Gypenosides by weight if not otherwise concentrated). Unlike most saponin-containing plants, the leaves appear to confer the highest concentration of saponins with the roots being lowest (stem intermediate).
The whole plant of Southern Ginseng has been found to reverse Multidrug Resistance, where P-Glycoprotein resistance to colchine (no effect on vinblastine or taxol) was reversed approximately 15-fold in vitro in the presence of 0.1mg/mL total Gypenosides, which was increased to 42-fold when purified further effectively abolishing the resistance. A later study isolated 3β,20(S),21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene (dubbed H6) found that while it did not exert toxicity below 50uM, lower concentrations were able to augment Vincristine-induced cytotoxicity, reducing the IC50 of Vincristine when H6 was at 5-20uM to the range of 2-9% of Vincristine alone. Additionally, this study suggested that H6 may induce P-gp (via ATPase) and inhibit MRP1 (via STAT3 inhibition) in KB/VCR cells.
Appears to interact with a drug efflux protein potently, and may have a role in augmenting some chemotherapies. The practical significance of this has not been tested in a living system yet
In cultured substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons (highly associated with the pathology of Parkinson's Disease), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) induced damage is attenuated with Gypenosides at 50-200ug/mL, with more efficacy when pretreated rather than posttreated. 200ug/mL was associated with almost normalization of anti-oxidant enzymes and pro-oxidative biomarkers (MDA, ROS) when pretreated.
Protection against MPTP have been noted in vivo in rats associated with less oxidative damage, and has been noted against hydroxydopamine (a pro-oxidative derivative of dopamine) following oral administration of 10-30mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum, where the cell survival that was reduced to 40.1% (relative to 100% of control) was attenuated to 67.4% and 75.8% at the two doses over 28 days (with a similar degree of preservation of catecholamines, which were reduced in toxin control).
Appears to be protective of a cluster of neurons that are involved in Parkinson's Disease, with this protection likely mediated via anti-oxidant effects (and more effective when pre-loaded). No human studies, but has shown efficacy in mice at relatively low doses
An in vitro study on hippocampal cells deprived of oxygen and glucose noted that an ethanolic extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum appears to preserve evoked field potential amplitude almost wholly when preincubated for 120 minutes prior to experimentation with no protective effect if incubated 60 minutes prior to insult. At 60ug/mL ethanolic extract, a two-fold induction of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) protein content was noted with a 20% increase in glutathione peroxidase after 48 hours incubation; these changes were independent of changes in DCFH fluorescence or H2O2 concentration, suggesting the increase in anti-oxidant enzyme defense was independent of changes in the basal oxidative balance. A near complete restoration of evoked field potentials can be achieved retroactively, but requires 240ug/mL to do so in vitro, thought to be due to direct antioxidant potential rather than induction of SOD. Protective effects have also been noted in vitro in the range of 100-400mcg/mL Gypenosides against glutamate toxicity, thought to be secondary to an increase of γ-GCS and GR mRNA which attenuated glutathione depletion.
May have protective effects secondary to inducing anti-oxidant enzymes, with both pretreatment and acute treatment being effective but a lower dose required if preloaded (possibly related to inducing anti-oxidant enzymes, rather than directly acting as an antioxidant)
In a model of rat cognitive impairment (BCCAO), rats injected with 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg Gynostemma Pentaphyllum for 61 days after surgery and assessed by a Morris water maze task (assessment of memory formation and retention) noted that only the higher dose was associated with improved memory formation following injury and was the only dose associated with improved Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (MDA), and histological assessment. Another study has induced BCCAO injury to rats but followed it up with oral ingestion of 200mg/kg or 400mg/kg concentrated Gypenoside (rather than the whole plant extract) for 33 days after injury and noted a somewhat attenuated adverse morphology on white matter of the brain associated with normalized SOD in the corpus callosum and optic tract with significantly attenuated 4-HNE and MDA.
The particular Gypenoside known as TN-2 at doses of 10-40mg/kg was shown to inhibit scopolamine-induced learning deficits in the range of 40-96% with 20mg/kg being maximally effective. There was no inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (usually associated with improvements in scopolamine models), was equally effective as Tacrine as active control (10mg/kg) and was associated with an induction of CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus, the latter of which appeared to exceed the normal control group. Similar protective effects have been noted with Gypenoside LXXIV.
Protective effects have been noted at large concentrations of either oral or injected Gypenosides in animals, no human studies
Mechanistically, Gypenosides have once been shown to inhibit the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase enzyme in cardiac tissue in a reversible and concentration dependent manner between 10-300mcg/mL with an IC50 of 58.79+/-8.05mcg/mL (brain ATPase also inhibited with an IC50 of 52.07+/-6.25mcg/mL), and appeared to have less inhibitory potential when ATP concentrations were increased from 0.5mM to 5mM. Gypenosides compete with sodium at the Na-binding site, causing a shift in ATP/Na-ATP equilibria and an increased affinity of ATPase for ATP, which overall established Gypenosides as counter competitors. These effects may underlie how 2.5-10mg/kg (injections) of Gypensides (as well as injections of 0.7mg/kg Gypenoside III and 0.3mg/kg Gypenoside VIII) all exerted protection against toxin induced tachycardia and arrythmia; nearing the potency of Vermapril (1mg/kg) but slightly underperforming.
May preserve heart contractility to a moderate degree
In diabetic rats suffering from cardiomyopathy (streptozotocin injected), oral ingestion of 100mg/kg Gypenosides which was ineffective in reducing blood glucose over 6 weeks was able to normalize left ventricular function (LVSP, LVEPD) by about 41-55% (100% being that of control levels, 0% diabetic control) without significantly affecting titin or nebulin content, two cytoskeletal proteins of the heart. This was hypothesized to be either through antioxidant effects of modulating calcium channels, although neither claim was tested. 100mg/kg appears to be more effective than 50mg/kg and 200mg/kg, suggesting an optimal dosage range.
Appears to reduce the adverse effects of high serum glucose on cardiac tissue in rats
Gypenosides from Southern Ginseng appears to induce endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation that is blocked by L-NAME, thus is mediated via the NO-cGMP pathway. In cultured endothelial cells, incubation with 50mcg/mL mixed Gypenosides increased Nitric Oxide levels to 435+/-38.2% of control which was augmented with addition of the A23187 calcium ionophore and attenuated with Indomethacin.
It is possible that Gypenosides may induce nitric oxide, but this was an in vitro study and not in a living system
Gypenosides at 300mcg/mL may decrease VCAM-1 mRNA activity, and a further ethanolic extract with a higher concentration of Gypenoside XLIX was able to decrease this activity (induced by TNF-α) at 50mcg/mL but with an IC50 of 186.8uM and near normalization to control cultures at 300mcg/mL. This was hypothesized to be due to PPARα agonistic abilities (with then inhibit NF-kB, a locus of whose inhibition greatly reduced VCAM-1) and this PPARα agonistic property has been previously noted, the potency of which is not significantly different than Wy-14643 at similar concentrations (trending to be weaker). This was confirmed when MK-886 (PPARα inhibitor) abolished the benefits of this Gypenoside.
May reduce vascular adhesion factors via PPARa, which may indirectly reduce artherosclerosis via preventing immune cell adhesion to the arterial wall
A study in obese rats given 150-250mg/kg Gynostemma Pentaphyllum (90% Gypenosides) for 5 weeks. At 4 days after ingestion triglycerides were unaltered at 150mg/kg while reduced 36% with 250mg/kg, 2 weeks in triglycerides were reduced 27% with 150mg/kg and 33%; the degree of triglyceride reduction appeared to max at around 35% at 5 weeks in both groups. Total cholesterol was reduced in the range of 13-22% with a decrease in LDL-C as well (HDL-C unaffected).
There appeared to be improvements in postprandial triglycerides after 5 weeks of supplementation in response to a test meal with Gynostemma supplementation. These hypolipidemic effects may also occur acutely, as one study using P407 (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, which causes acute spikes in triglycerides) with a 4 day preload of Gypenosides at 250mg/kg was able to reduce the spike in triglycerides by 53% (total cholesterol by 10%, HDL unaffected) but more dramatic effects were noted after 14 days (85% attenuation of the P407-induced increase). This was thought to be from attenuating the effects of P407 on the LPL enzyme, and Gypenosides in isolation had no effect on the LPL receptor between 5-100ug/mL.
Appears to reduce circulating triglycerides over a prolonged period of time
A polysaccharide from Gynostemma appears to be able to bind to bile acids with a greater gram per gram affinity relative to psyllium fiber, which may underlie possible cholesterol reducing effects (currently unexplored).
200mg/kg of Actiponin (heat treated Southern Ginseng with 0.96% Damulin A and 0.68% Damulin B) over 8 weeks was able to attenuate weight gain of genetically obese mice by 8.1% relative to control; with the active control of 30mg/kg Sibutramine reducing this weight gain 10% independent of any changes in food intake. A later portion of this study gave 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg to adult obese mice and noted a 5.7% and 7.7% reduction in body weight independent of food intake; these effects were thought to be mediated via AMPK activation in skeletal muscle tissue.
Two compounds are suspected to be fat burners via AMPK activation and this has been noted in a living system, although the degree of benefit with a standard oral serving of Gynostemma Pentapyllum with a lower Damulin content is not known
Gynostemma Pentaphyllum (90% Gypenosides) appears to have an IC50 of 42.8µg/mL against α-glucoside (which outperformed Arcabose at 53.9µg/mL).
May be able to reduce carbohydrate absorption; no fecal tests conducted so the degree of this inhibition is not known
Saponins in general from Gynostemma Pentaphyllum appears to have inhibitory potential on the PTP1B enzyme (a negative regulator of insulin signalling that is a therapeutic target of Type II diabetes management) in a concentration dependent manner, including gypensapogenin A (IC50 23uM), B (IC50 24.5uM), E (IC50 13.1uM), and G (IC50 19.7uM) with less efficacy (IC50 49uM) from F and some from 3β-hydroxyetio-17β-dammaranic acid (24.5uM) with most potency coming from (20S)-3β,20,23ξ-Trihydroxydammarane-24-en-21-oic acid-21,23 lactone with an IC50 of 5.3+/-0.4μM via competitive inhibition with a Ki of 2.8μM; comparable to the active controls of corosolic acid (IC50 7.5+/-0.6μM) and ursolic acid (3.6+/-0.2μM).
These compounds have been structurally modified (into compounds not naturally occurring in Southern Ginseng) to more potent inhibitors due to their novel structures; with IC50 values as low as 0.27uM.
Compounds in Southern Ginseng appear to be relatively effective inhibitors of PTP1B, which can help glucose uptake into cells by preserving the function of the insulin receptor. At least in regards to natural options, these appear to be moderately potent
A compound from Gynostemma Pentaphyllum known as Phanoside appears to be able to induce insulin secretion which can occur in both normal and diabetic pancreatic tissue at low and high normal glucose concentrations in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanistically, it was found to not be inhibited by any added agent at low glucose concentrations, which may be related to facilitating insulin exocytosis (as many classical mechanisms of K-ATP channel closure, calcium influx, and PKA/PKC activity were found to be independent of Phanoside).
One compound may increase insulin secretion, which paired with a protective effect on the pancreas (see the Pancreas section of "Interactions with Organ Systems") Gypenosides may be pro-insulinogenic depending on context
When looking at rat studies, usage of 100mg/kg of the Gypenosides for 9 weeks fails to significantly reduce serum glucose in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Another study in db/db mice using low dose (0.0025% Gypenosides by weight of the diet) or high dose (0.01%) compared to rosiglitazone (0.005%) over 5 weeks noted that high dose was able to reduce fasting glucose (13.2%) but underperformed relative to rosiglitazone (57%); all test groups significantly increased fasting insulin levels relative to diabetic control. Higher doses (200-300mg/kg injections; 1500mg/kg of oral ingestion) have been shown to acutely reduce blood glucose.
In drug naive diabetics who were given gliclazide for 4 weeks at 30mg and then divided into group, 6g of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum (18% Saponins) in two divided doses against placebo (actually green tea catechins) noted that treatment with GP further decreased blood glucose and HbA1c although the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not statistically significant. A tea made from Gynostemma Pentaphyllum (6g of the leaves) has been tested in isolation without drug therapy but alongside standard diet and exercise advice (also given to placebo tea group) in Type II Diabetics, and the Southern Ginseng group appeared to provide greater benefit to fasting glucose (5-fold greater reduction than placebo; totalling a 3+/-1.8mmol/L drop), HbA1c (2% reduction; placebo 0.2%), and insulin sensitivity over a period of 12 weeks.
One rat study suggest high doses can acutely reduce glucose, but the two human studies conducted suggest that a tea made from Gynostemma Pentaphyllum can be an effective adjunct therapy alongside other treatments such as drug or exercise intervention and augment the efficacy of those interventions
In myotubes, the two dammarane-type saponins known as Damulin A and B can activate AMPK in a concentration and time dependent manner and secondary to this increased glucose uptake 1.7-fold at 60ug/mL (of a solution containing 0.93% Damulin A and 0.68% Damulin B), increased GLUT4 mobilization and increased fatty acid oxidation (2.2-fold), and the increase in beta-oxidation from 150uM Damulin A or 12uM Damulin B is comparable to 1mM AICAR and the glucose uptake of 150uM (but not 12uM Damulin B) was not significantly than different than 2mM Metformin (although trended to be less potent). In feeding rats 150-300mg/kg of this mixture for 9 weeks, AMPK and ACC activity was enhanced in vivo in the soleus muscle.
Appears to activate AMPK in skeletal muscle tissue, which has been noted to occur after oral administration to rats. This may underlie fat burning effects and perhaps some glucose/lipid reducing effects
One study administering a bioactive polysaccharide to mice named GPP1a was able to prolong exercise to fatigue and preserve glycogen content in exercised mice, which was associated with less oxidative markers (MDA); this study is duplicated in Medline.
Only one study in mice with an isolated polysaccharide shows promise; polysaccharide may not exist in non-caloric supplement capsules (although it should in tea, as it is water soluble)
In cultured mouse macrophages (J774A.1), mixed flavonoid extracts appear to have fairly weak suppressive effects on LPS-stimulated macrophages (when assessing cytokine release). Similar suppressive effects are seen with the Gypenosides in RAW 264.7 macrophages where LPS-induced nitric oxide release is attenuated with an IC50 of 3.1+/-0.4ug/mL when pretreated before LPS, with 25mcg/mL being as potent as 10mcg/mL aminoguanidine; when added at a time similar to LPS induction, Gypenosides were weaker and reached maximal inhibition with 25mcg/mL at 47.3+/-0.1% (rather than absolute suppression seen with preincubation). iNOS mRNA and protein content are reduced, and the mechanism is thought to be tied to NF-kB inhibition.
Limited evidence, but Gypenosides and the flavonoids appear to be anti-inflammatory on immune cells
One polysaccharide (PSGP) has been noted to, following injections of 25-100mg/kg into mice and then having the macrophages removed after 8 hours, was able to induce macrophage activity with 100mg/kg being as effective as 0.2mg/kg LPS, and in vitro a concentration of 100mcg/mL being as effective as 0.2mg/mL LPS (with higher doses dose-dependently being more effective up to 400mcg/mL).
A water soluble polysaccharide has been shown to be proinflammatory (immune booster)
Beyond the above mechanisms, Gynostemma Pentaphyllum may offer putative anti-oxidant protection in immune cells.
A hot water extract of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum fed at either 1.75g/kg or 5g/kg bodyweight 5 days a week for 4 weeks noted that airway inflammation at both doses was not significantly different than control (all three groups significantly better than Ovalbumin control). Similar effects have been noted within one week with 5g/kg, although in this study 1.75g/kg was ineffective.
The increase in eosinophils in the lungs (+50% in Ovalbumin control) was significantly attenuated with both doses to a 16.18-22.54% with small dose dependence, with infiltration significantly reduced.
Gynostemma Pentaphyllum can possibly be useful to prevent immune cell infiltration and hyperresponsiveness to allergins; would be useful to read the "Lung" section of "Interactions with Organ Systems" as Gynostemma may also be somewhat anti-asthmatic
10, 30, and 50mg/kg ethanolic extract of Southern Ginseng (for 7 days) prior to a 2 week stressor of electrical shocks has also noted that the stress reduced reduction in thymus and spleen weights were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner and Lymphocyte count somewhat preserved (48% preservation in the thymus, absolute preservation in the spleen with 50mg/kg only). This study also noted preservation of TNF-α secretion in response to LPS, preservation of splenocytic proliferation, and T-cell cytotoxicity but IL-1β was seemingly unaffected. Preservation of T-cell cytotoxicity and lymphocyte count as been noted with similar oral doses of Souther Ginseng in response to dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression in mice and a preservation of lympocyte count has been noted against cadmium-induced lymphocyte decline.
Appears to be able to attenuate immunosuppression induced by various agents (preventing the decline in immune cell count that would otherwise occur with stressors); an indirect immune support effect
In mice sensitized with Ovalbumin, administration of 1.75-5g/kg Gynostemma Pentaphyllum hot water extract for 4 weeks was able to attenuate the increase in IL-5 and TNF-α without affecting IL-6 or IL-13 alongside a decrease in antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE with no significant differences between groups; IFN-γ was not significantly affected. This is noted within 7 days of 5g/kg treatment, but not 1.75g/kg and usage of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum does not appeared to be associated with significant haemolytic activity when used as vaccine adjuvant where 200mcg Gypenosides induce more splenocyte proliferation than 200mcg Aluminum, but similar levels to that of 50-100mcg Quil-A (a saponin isolated from Quillaja saponaria with proven adjuvant properties). This study noted that Gypenosides induced less IgG and IgG1 than Quil-A, but similar levels of IgG2b.
Gypenosides may augment the body's antibody response to antigens, and act as an immune support agent. Limited evidence, however, but this effect is similar to that of Panax Ginseng
Oral ingestion of 50, 100, or 200mg/kg Gynostemma Pentaphyllum given to mice alongside a testicular toxin (10mcg zearalenone) was able to wholly preserve superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the lowest dose relative to 10% alcohol control and progressively induced SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner; MDA (indicative of lipid peroxidation) was also reduced at all doses. Germ cell apoptosis was greatly attenuated in a dose-dependent manner and this was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 to Bax (the higher the ratio indicative of cell survival), and histological examination appeared normalized at the highest dose.
Appears to be quite protective of germ cells, which although isn't a 'pro-fertility' mechanism may indirectly support fertility. A fairly potent anti-oxidant effect in the testicles
One study using low-dose Gynostemma (0.005-0.05% of the rat diet) in db/db mice that developed diabetes noted that despite lacklustre effects on lowering glucose (dose was too low for this effect) that serum insulin was markedly higher than the diabetic control (75-224%) and higher than Rosiglitazone active control (29-139%). As assessed by histological examination, Gynostemma at these doses appeared to greatly preserve the islets of Langerhans and the insulin-secreting β-cells that were perturbed during diabetic pathology.
Low doses show have shown, in one study, to have fairly remarkable protective effects on the pancreas and preserve insulin secretion
One study noted that a saponin in Gynostemma Pentaphyllum is able to selectively activate LXRα, an enzyme highly localized to the liver that plays a role in cholesterol regulation.
A study incubating hepatocytes with a high glucose and linoleic acid content (to mimic the conditions which damage liver cells during NAFLD) found that an ethanolic extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum was able to attenuate the concentration of triglycerides and cholesterol in hepatocytes in a concentration dependent manner between 100-300mcg/mL. A reduction of F2-IsoPs was noted (although unreliable) and thought to be related to anti-oxidant properties; an increase of nitrate concentration was noted when coincubated with fatty acids only.
Hepatic Stellate cell growth has been shown to be inhibited in vitro at 500μg/mL by Gypenosides via inhibiting the Akt/p70s6k pathway and suppressing the secretions of the cytokines MCP-1 (40%), VEGF (17%), and TIMP-1 (25%) relative to untreated control; this inhibition of MCP-1 also occurs with suppressed mRNA content, which is independent of the Akt/p70s6k pathway. A reduction in type I procollagen also occured in a dose-dependent manner, although on all markers concentrations of 100-400mcg/mL were much less effective than 500mcg/mL. These mechanisms may underlie the anti-fibrotic effect observed in vivo, when rats given Gynostemma Pentaphyllum experienced less collagen growth in their livers in response to a fibrosis-inducing toxin (CCl4).
General protective effects from mixed anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, may be anti-fibrotic and protect liver cells during instances of NAFLD
In rats given a high fat and cholesterol diet with some alcohol (to induce hepatic steatotosis) Gypenosides given at 15, 30, or 60mg/kg noted that the high dose group was approximately as effective as Silymarin at 23mg/kg in attenuating weight gain over 10 weeks and attenuating the hepatic index, but was more effective at reducing intrahepatic triglycerides (although PPARα mRNA levels were similar between groups; both higher than control). ALT and AST were reduced similarly in the 30-60mg/kg Gypenoside groups as was the Silymarin group.
One pilot study that compared 80mL Gynostemma Pentaphyllumtea against placebo in persons with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD) in conjunction with dieting noted that while diet was effective at all time points, the addition of tea failed to exert any significant benefit at 2 months but at 6 months was associated with significantly improved insulin sensitivity, weight loss, and serum liver enzyme profile relative to dieting placebo.
In instances of high liver fat (NAFLD), Gynostemma Pentaphyllum has shown benefit following oral administration; only one human study using low dose tea but showed benefit over 6 months
Gypenosides may have protective effects against renal fibrosis via attenuating changes in TGF-ß1, CTGF, and Smad7 (proteins involved in pathogenesis of fibrosis) and a single dose of 200mg/kg oral Gypenosides has shown to reverse the increase in urinary protein excretion induced by 10mg/kg Indomethacin, trending (nonsignificantly) to be less than control rats. An increase in urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was noted with the paired group (usually indicative of tubular toxicity), but there was no group taking Gypenosides in isolation to assess whether this is a per se effect of Gypenosides.
Protective effects against fibrosis may also apply to the kidney, and although one study noted a normalization of urinary protein (indicative of renal protection) some biomarkers were not ideal; further research is needed
When 200mg/kg Gypenosides is taken 30 minutes prior to an overdose of NSAIDs (10mg/kg Indomethacin), the Gypenosides exert good protection of NSAID-induced ulcer inductions as assessed by ulceration area (mm3); reducing the ulcer by approximately 91%. Similar protective effects are observed in the intestines where ulceration was reduced by 88% and increases in haptoglobin (serum) and haemoglobin (caecal) with Indomethacin were effectively normalized. Protection against Helibactor Pylori induced ulcers,stress-induced ulcers, and acid with alcohol induced ulcers.
Appears to be quite an anti-ulcer agent in repeated animal studies against a variety of ulcer inducing agents
In a study on Indomethacin-induced toxicity, it was found that while intervention with Indomethacin did not alter intestinal microflora that Gypenosides at 200mg/kg (with Indomethacin, no Gypenoside-only group) was associated with a decrease in lactose-fermenting bacteria from 88-89.7% of bacteria to 25%; this was accompanied by an increase in bacteria per gram of tissue by 7.3-fold (Indomethacin) and 18-fold (Gynostemma and Indomethacin).
May interaction with gut microflora, practical significance unknown and the study not adequately designed to assess the impact of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum per se
One study in Guinea pigs noted that while injections of 2.5-10mg/kg Gypenosides (or alternatively, 0.7mg/kg Gypenoside III and 0.3mg/kg Gypenoside VIII) caused a slight decrease in pulmonary ventilation pressure and resistance at the highest dose, all doses were effective in reducing histamine-induced constriction to a degree (66-68% inhibition with Gypenosides, no dose dependence noted). In response to an antigen (which induces bronchoconstriction), 10mg/kg Gypenosides caused 80% inhibition of constriction which was similar to the active control of 10mg/kg Sodium Cromoglicate.
May have anti-histamine mechanisms and preserve an 'open airway' through inhibiting constriction, without per se causing dilation
An extract of Gypenosides at 60-180ug/mL in SAS oral cancer cells is able to increase cell count in the G0/G1 and subGo/G1 phases and decreased S phase count; this was secondary to a calcium and ROS-dependent induction of apoptosis in a time and concentration dependent manner with 180ug/mL for 72 hours causing near absolute apoptosis via mitochondrial caspase release and possibly by inhibiting DNA repair in SAS cells. Cytochrome C and Endo-G have been noted to be released from the mitochondria (indicative of disturbed membrane potential) and GADD153 induction and nuclear translocation has been noted to be dependent on catalase (and thought to be related to ER stress).
Gypenosides may also have anti-proliferative effects in this same cell line (SAS) as 90-180mcg/mL Gypenosides for 24-48h in vitro noted that while 90mcg/mL greatly attenuated migration, 180mcg/mL at both time points abolished migration. Using a Matrigel assay, 90mcg/mL reduced migration (32-46%) and invasion (28-65%) while 180mcg/mL further reduced migration (63-78%) and invasion (51-80%) in a time dependent manner. This was thought the be related to suppression of MMP proteins (2, 7, 9) and NF-kB.
In mice injected with SAS cells to induce a tumor, injections of 20mg/kg Gypenosides for 28 days decreased tumor weight by 34% while the active control group (2mg/kg Doxorubicin) halved tumor size.
Appears to have repeated in vitro evidence, and one mouse study suggesting it can be useful to reduce the size of oral cancer cell tumors; it underperformed relative to the reference drug Doxorubicin
In a HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells, gypenosides were shown to induce time and concentration dependent reductions in cell viability with 200ug/mL reducing survival to less than 20%. These changes were associated with an increase in G0/G1 cell count and a decrease in S phase, thought to be through a decrease in mitochondrial permeability and an increase in caspase release associated with an increase in intracellular calcium and ROS. Another test in WEHI-3 (myelomonocytic leukemia macrophage-like) leukemia cells also noted DNA damage induced by Gypenosides reaching sub 40% viability after 48 hours of 200ug/mL and sub 20% after 72 hours of 150ug/mL, associated with the same cell phase changes and pro-oxidative mitochondrial pathway.
In mice given injections of HL-60 (to induce tumor formation) given either 5 or 20mg/kg injections of Gypenosides every third day for a period of 4 weeks tumor size was reduced 56% with the higher dose with 5mg/kg not being significantly different than control. Another study with daily injections of 2-4mg/kg total Gypenosides after injection with WEHI-3 leukemia cells noted dose-dependent prolongation of survival time (from 40% to 70% over 2 weeks),increases in megakaryocytes and CD3/CD19 cells, and a decrease in spleen weight.
Possible anti-leukemic effects which have been noted twice in mice injected with leukemic cells; no comparison to a reference drug to assess potency, however
A screening study in Hep3B cells to assess bioactives that can induce apoptosis or halt proliferation of this cell line noted that the saponin fragment could reduce proliferation to 22.4% at 100ug/mL and the flavonoid fragment to 14.6% at 100ug/mL (IC50 47.6ug/mL and 57.8ug/mL respectively). In Huh-7 cells, Gypenosides appear to induce apoptosis by a ROS and Calcium-mediated increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability which induces caspase release and similar apoptotic results to these two cell lines (Hep3B and Huh7) have been seen in HA22T cells.
Appears to induce cell death in a variety of liver cancer cells, no in vivo evidence
In a preliminary study A549 lung cancer cells, the molecule gypensapogenin C appears to induce cytotoxicity at an IC50 of 0.11+/-0.3μM. In general, mixed Gypenosides can induce concentration and time dependent apoptosis in A549 cells associated with cell accumulation in G0/G1 and sub-G1 phases and DNA fragmentation and caspase release.
General cell killing effect in lung cells; practical significance unknown
Gypensapogenin C appears to induce cytotoxicity in U87 glioblastoma cells with an IC50 of 0.58 ± 0.16μM.
A study assessing C6 glioma tumor cells, 24-240mcg/mL (ethanolic extract) acutely reduced H2O2 levels in a concentration dependent manner with an induction of SOD up to 2-fold over 48 hours of incubation at 120mcg/mL or above; this surprisingly occurred with a concentration and time dependent decrease in cell viability in tumor cells associated with caspase-3 release (almost abolishing proliferation at 72 hours with 240mcg/mL) and did not seem to influence non-cancerous astrocytes within the tested dose range.
Standard cell killing effects in glioma cells, with at least one study noting that healthy cells were not affect at this concentration; no living models have been tested yet
Using a saponin-rich fraction of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a weak inhibition of proliferation (12.1%) was noted with 10ug/mL increasing to over 80% at 100ug/mL with slightly more effective inhibition at graded concentration of a flavonoid rich extract up to 150ug/mL; the IC50 values were 33.3μg/mL and 39.3μg/mL respectively. These effects were accompanied by an increase in sub-G0/G1 and decrease in G0/G1 phase and related to the mitochondrial-caspase pathway.
Possible anti-prostate cancer effects, practical significance unknown and not overly potent either
Gypenosides appears to reduce NAT1 protein and mRNA content in a dose-dependent manner, which has been associated with less DNA adduct formation in HeLa cells incubated with 2-aminofluorene (which binds to DNA after being acetylated by NAT1 enzymes).
Practical significance of oral supplementation unknown
Gypenosides are able to cause apoptosis in Colo205 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner with an IC50 of 113.5ug/mL, which is related to mitochondrial caspase release from ROS and calcium; an increaes in G0/G1 and subG1 phases are seen in this cell line. This study also noted increase levels of p15, p16, p21, p27, and p53, and the authors hypothesized the mechanism of action was related to inducing p53 (which would positively influence p21 and p27, and the increase in Bax would mediate apoptosis).
Possible anti-cancer effects, with moderate to weak potency (judging by the IC50 values) and no living system tested
SK0506 is a herbal mixture of Coptis Chinensis (source of Berberine), Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Gynostemma Pentaphyllum; used for the treatment of diabetes. A rat study using 1000mg Gypenosides, 800mg Berberine, and 500mg Tanshinone IIA per kg bodyweight in rats with metabolic syndrome for 4 weeks noted that rats fed SK0506 was able to reduce plasma triglycerides (34%), NEFA (22%), and cholesterol (31%) with some ability to reduce insulin (37%); in comparison to the active control of 3mg/kg Rosiglitazone, SK0506 outperformed on lipid parameters and underperformed for reducing insulin and improving insulin sensitivity while both failed at reducing glucose significantly over 4 weeks. When measuring body weight, the SK0506 group experienced a decrease in fat mass and body weight while the active control Rosiglitazone expectedly increased body weight.
Possible synergism among these compounds for the purpose of being anti-diabetic, although delineation between the active components has not been done yet
Grape Seed Extract (GSE; essentially a source of Procyanidin compounds) has been tested alongside Gypenosides at 40mg/kg each supplement (against other groups of 80mg/kg GSE, 80mg/kg Gypenosides, and 500mg/kg Metformin as active controls) in mice on a high fat paired with fructose diet that suffered from hepatic insulin resistance (due to diet composition) over a period of 6 weeks.
This study noted that the combination therapy group outperformed both isolated Gypenosides and isolated GSE in reducing the percent body fat gained slightly which was not significantly different than control and normalized serum glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity; combination therapy was equally effective as Metformin at reducing serum insulin while being slightly (but significantly) more effective at reducing serum glucose and improving insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy, but not either treatment in isolation, was equally effective as Metformin in response to an oral glucose tolerance test.
One study in rats suggest that Grape Seed Extract and Gypenosides are highly synergistic in improving central insulin resistance, and combination therapy rivalling the efficacy of Metformin
Oral doses up to 750mg/kg of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum water extract failed to exert any appreciable toxic effects in rats over a period of 6 months aside from a slight but nonsignificant reduction in weight, seen in a dose-dependent manner. No differences were observed in food intake or behaviour, organ weight, or hematological parameters. A rough estimate for the equivalent human dose of 750mg/kg in rats is 120mg/kg water extract in humans, or 8g daily for a 150lb person. Oral doses of up to 400mg Gynostemma Pentaphyllum for 2 months has been shown to be safe in otherwise healthy humans.
No toxicity has been reported with moderate to high usage of Gynostemma, although evidence is limited
A hot water extract of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum failed to exert mutagenicity (induce mutations) to Salmonella typhimurium, TA 98, and TA 100 with or without metabolic activity. When testing coincubation with known carcinogens, Gynostemma hot water extract protected against 7 including Benzo(a)pyrine induced mutagenesis (a carcinogen found in cooked meat) although it augmented mutagenicity from the two test compounds 2-AA (TA98 strain) and MNNG (TA100 strain) with decreasing augmentation as the concentration increased.
Mixed effects on genomic damage, although for the most part it appears to protect the genome from damage
- A phase I trial of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in healthy volunteers.
- Li N, et al. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Eur J Med Chem. (2012)
- Jiang ZH, et al. Chemical Differentiation of Two Taste Variants of Gynostemma pentaphyllum by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and HPLC-ELSD. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
- Nguyen KH, et al. Nuciferine stimulates insulin secretion from beta cells-an in vitro comparison with glibenclamide. J Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
- Hung TM, et al. Dammarane-type glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their effects on IL-4-induced eotaxin expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. J Nat Prod. (2010)
- Lin JM, et al. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects of anoectochilus formosanus, ganoderma lucidum and gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats. Am J Chin Med. (1993)
- Yin F, Hu L, Pan R. Novel dammarane-type glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2004)
- Zhang XS, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory effect by dammarane-type triterpenes from hydrolyzate of total Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2012)
- Shi L, et al. Two new triterpene saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. (2012)
- Kim JH, Han YN. Dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. (2011)
- Circosta C, De Pasquale R, Occhiuto F. Cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Phytomedicine. (2005)
- New dammarane-type glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.
- Tsai YC, Lin CL, Chen BH. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell. Phytomedicine. (2010)
- Joh EH, Yang JW, Kim DH. Gypenoside LXXIV ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficit in mice. Planta Med. (2010)
- Huang TH, et al. Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring PPAR-alpha activator, inhibits cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and activity in human endothelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. (2007)
- Zhang Z, et al. Gynostemosides A-E, megastigmane glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. (2010)
- Li Q, et al. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of Gynoside A in solution using NMR and molecular modeling. Molecules. (2007)
- Liu X, et al. Five new Ocotillone-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Nat Prod. (2004)
- Hoa NK, et al. The possible mechanisms by which phanoside stimulates insulin secretion from rat islets. J Endocrinol. (2007)
- Norberg A, et al. A novel insulin-releasing substance, phanoside, from the plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Biol Chem. (2004)
- Zhu H, et al. Reversal of P-gp and MRP1-mediated multidrug resistance by H6, a gypenoside aglycon from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, in vincristine-resistant human oral cancer (KB/VCR) cells. Eur J Pharmacol. (2012)
- Shi L, et al. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. (2011)
- Gauhar R, et al. Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract improves obesity in ob/ob mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Biotechnol Lett. (2012)
- Nguyen PH, et al. New dammarane-type glucosides as potential activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Bioorg Med Chem. (2011)
- Gan M, et al. Dammarane glycosides from the root of Machilus yaoshansis. J Nat Prod. (2012)
- Tsai YC, Wu WB, Chen BH. Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell. J Med Food. (2010)
- Huang SC, et al. Determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. (2008)
- Malek MA, et al. Ombuin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a dual agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and δ/. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2012)
- Cheng TC, et al. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Agric Food Chem. (2011)
- Kao TH, et al. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. (2008)
- Xie Z, et al. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Agric Food Chem. (2011)
- Xie Z, et al. Chemical Composition of Five Commercial Gynostemma pentaphyllum Samples and Their Radical Scavenging, Antiproliferative, and Anti-inflammatory Properties. J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
- Nookabkaew S, Rangkadilok N, Satayavivad J. Determination of trace elements in herbal tea products and their infusions consumed in Thailand. J Agric Food Chem. (2006)
- Chi A, et al. Chemical Composition of Three Polysaccharides From Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Their Antioxidant Activity in Skeletal Muscle of Exercised Mice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2012)
- Yang X, et al. Isolation and characterization of immunostimulatory polysaccharide from an herb tea, Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. J Agric Food Chem. (2008)
- Liu SB, Lin R, Hu ZH. Histochemical localization of ginsenosides in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and the content changes of total gypenosides. Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. (2005)
- Huang TH, et al. Specific reversal of multidrug resistance to colchicine in CEM/VLB(100) cells by Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. (2007)
- Wang P, et al. Gypenosides protects dopaminergic neurons in primary culture against MPP(+)-induced oxidative injury. Brain Res Bull. (2010)
- Wang P, et al. Neuroprotective effect of gypenosides against oxidative injury in the substantia nigra of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Int Med Res. (2010)
- Choi HS, et al. Neuroprotective effects of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. Molecules. (2010)
- Schild L, et al. Preconditioning of brain slices against hypoxia induced injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract--stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme expression. Phytomedicine. (2012)
- Schild L, et al. Protection of hippocampal slices against hypoxia/hypoglycemia injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. (2009)
- Shang L, et al. Gypenosides protect primary cultures of rat cortical cells against oxidative neurotoxicity. Brain Res. (2006)
- Zhang GL, et al. Gypenosides improve cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats by suppressing oxidative stress and astrocytic activation. Behav Pharmacol. (2011)
- Zhang G, et al. Gypenoside attenuates white matter lesions induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (2011)
- Hong SW, et al. Gypenoside TN-2 ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficit in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
- Han XY, Wei HB, Zhang FC. Analysis of the inhibitory effect of gypenoside on Na(+), K (+)-ATPase in rats' heart and brain and its kinetics. Chin J Integr Med. (2007)
- Ge M, et al. The effect of gypenosides on cardiac function and expression of cytoskeletal genes of myocardium in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. Am J Chin Med. (2009)
- Effects of gypenosides on cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats.
- Tanner MA, et al. The direct release of nitric oxide by gypenosides derived from the herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Nitric Oxide. (1999)
- Huang TH, et al. Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, PPAR-alpha dependently inhibits LPS-induced tissue factor expression and activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. (2007)
- Huang TH, et al. Gypenoside XLIX isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB activation via a PPAR-alpha-dependent pathway. J Biomed Sci. (2006)
- Megalli S, Davies NM, Roufogalis BD. Anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the Zucker fatty rat. J Pharm Pharm Sci. (2006)
- Megalli S, et al. Phytopreventative anti-hyperlipidemic effects of gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci. (2005)
- Yan W, et al. Characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from diploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Carbohydr Polym. (2013)
- Identification of Tyrosine Phosphatases That Dephosphorylate the Insulin Receptor.
- Elchebly M, et al. Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene. Science. (1999)
- Hung TM, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory by dammaranes from Vietnamese Giao-Co-Lam tea. J Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
- Xu JQ, et al. Dammaranes from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and synthesis of their derivatives as inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Bioorg Med Chem. (2010)
- Yeo J, et al. Potential hypoglycemic effect of an ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Med Food. (2008)
- Hoa NK, et al. Screening of the hypoglycemic effect of eight Vietnamese herbal drugs. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (2009)
- Huyen VT, et al. Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2012)
- Huyen VT, et al. Antidiabetic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea in randomly assigned type 2 diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res. (2010)
- Chi A, et al. Chemical Composition of Three Polysaccharides From Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Their Antioxidant Activity in Skeletal Muscle of Exercised Mice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2012)
- Aktan F, et al. Gypenosides derived from Gynostemma pentaphyllum suppress NO synthesis in murine macrophages by inhibiting iNOS enzymatic activity and attenuating NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS protein expression. Nitric Oxide. (2003)
- Li L, Jiao L, Lau BH. Protective effect of gypenosides against oxidative stress in phagocytes, vascular endothelial cells and liver microsomes. Cancer Biother. (1993)
- Liou CJ, et al. Long-term oral administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract attenuates airway inflammation and Th2 cell activities in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Food Chem Toxicol. (2010)
- Huang WC, et al. Gynostemma pentaphyllum decreases allergic reactions in a murine asthmatic model. Am J Chin Med. (2008)
- Im SA, et al. Restoration of electric footshock-induced immunosuppression in mice by Gynostemma pentaphyllum components. Molecules. (2012)
- Augmentation of Immune Responses by Oral Administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Ethanol Extract.
- Suntararuks S, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of cadmium and Gynostemma pentaphyllum herbal tea on rat splenocyte proliferation. J Agric Food Chem. (2008)
- Enhancing Th1 Cell Activities in Mice by Short-term Oral Administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extracts.
- Huang WC, et al. Extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum enhanced the production of antibodies and cytokines in mice. Yakugaku Zasshi. (2007)
- Sun H, Zheng Q. Haemolytic activities and adjuvant effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Phytother Res. (2005)
- Yuan H, et al. Gynostemma pentaphyllum protects mouse male germ cells against apoptosis caused by zearalenone via Bax and Bcl-2 regulation. Toxicol Mech Methods. (2010)
- Huang TH, et al. A novel LXR-alpha activator identified from the natural product Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Biochem Pharmacol. (2005)
- Feldstein AE, et al. Free fatty acids promote hepatic lipotoxicity by stimulating TNF-alpha expression via a lysosomal pathway. Hepatology. (2004)
- Malhi H, et al. Free fatty acids induce JNK-dependent hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. J Biol Chem. (2006)
- Müller C, et al. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. (2012)
- Chen MH, et al. The molecular mechanism of gypenosides-induced G1 growth arrest of rat hepatic stellate cells. J Ethnopharmacol. (2008)
- Chen MH, et al. The inhibitory effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on MCP-1 and type I procollagen expression in rat hepatic stellate cells. J Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
- Chen JC, et al. Therapeutic effect of gypenoside on chronic liver injury and fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. Am J Chin Med. (2000)
- Qin R, et al. Protective effects of gypenosides against fatty liver disease induced by high fat and cholesterol diet and alcohol in rats. Arch Pharm Res. (2012)
- Chou SC, et al. The add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Altern Ther Health Med. (2006)
- Zhang Y, et al. Gypenosides inhibit renal fibrosis by regulating expression of related genes in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction. J Nephrol. (2011)
- Hesse C, et al. Phytopreventative effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum against acute Indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal and renal toxicity in rats. Phytother Res. (2007)
- Therapeutic role and its mechanism of gypenosides on delayed healing of experimental gastric ulcer induced by NCTC11637 strain HP in rats.
- Rujjanawate C, Kanjanapothi D, Amornlerdpison D. The anti-gastric ulcer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Phytomedicine. (2004)
- Circosta C, et al. Bronchodilatory effects of the aqueous extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and gypenosides III and VIII in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. J Pharm Pharmacol. (2005)
- Lu KW, et al. Gypenosides suppress growth of human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro and in a murine xenograft model: the role of apoptosis mediated by caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Integr Cancer Ther. (2012)
- Lu KW, et al. Gypenosides inhibits migration and invasion of human oral cancer SAS cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 -9 and urokinase-plasminogen by ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. Hum Exp Toxicol. (2011)
- Lu KW, et al. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells. In Vivo. (2010)
- Chen JC, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via CHk2 and apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. Oral Oncol. (2009)
- Lu KW, et al. Gypenosides inhibited invasion and migration of human tongue cancer SCC4 cells through down-regulation of NFkappaB and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Anticancer Res. (2008)
- Lin JJ, et al. Molecular evidence of anti-leukemia activity of gypenosides on human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo using a HL-60 cells murine xenograft model. Phytomedicine. (2011)
- Hsu HY, et al. An experimental study on the antileukemia effects of gypenosides in vitro and in vivo. Integr Cancer Ther. (2011)
- Wang QF, et al. Gypenosides induce apoptosis in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells through a calcium/reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Planta Med. (2007)
- Wang QF, et al. Regulation of Bcl-2 family molecules and activation of caspase cascade involved in gypenosides-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett. (2002)
- Chen JC, Chung JG, Chen LD. Gypenoside induces apoptosis in human Hep3B and HA22T tumour cells. Cytobios. (1999)
- Lu HF, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via inhibition of cyclin E and induction of apoptosis via activation of caspases-3 and -9 in human lung cancer A-549 cells. In Vivo. (2008)
- Schild L, et al. Selective induction of apoptosis in glioma tumour cells by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. (2010)
- Chiu TH, et al. Gypenosides inhibited N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene, N-acetyltransferase gene expression and DNA adduct formation in human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cells (HeLa). Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. (2004)
- Chiu TH, Chen JC, Chung JG. N-acetyltransferase is involved in gypenosides-induced N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene and DNA adduct formation in human cervix epidermoid carcinoma cells (Ca Ski). In Vivo. (2003)
- Chen JC, et al. Gypenosides induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathways and activation of caspase-3. Anticancer Res. (2006)
- Tan Y, et al. Chinese herbal extracts (SK0506) as a potential candidate for the therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond). (2011)
- Zhang HJ, et al. A combination of grape seed-derived procyanidins and gypenosides alleviates insulin resistance in mice and HepG2 cells. J Food Sci. (2009)
- Attawish A, et al. Chronic toxicity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Fitoterapia. (2004)
- Guidance for Industry Estimating the Maximum Safe Starting Dose in Initial Clinical Trials for Therapeutics in Adult Healthy Volunteers.
- Kulwat C, et al. Antimutagenicity and DT-diaphorase inducing activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino extract. J Med Invest. (2005)
- Talalay P. Mechanisms of induction of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogenesis. Adv Enzyme Regul. (1989)