Quick Navigation

Ganoderma lucidum

Ganoderma lucidum is a potent immune system regulator, promising anti-cancer agent, and stress reducer. This mushroom is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Our evidence-based analysis on ganoderma lucidum features 227 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:

Easily stay on top of the latest nutrition research

Become an Examine Member to get access to all of the latest nutrition research:

  • Unlock information on 400+ supplements and 600+ health topics.
  • Get a monthly report summarizing studies in the health categories that matter specifically to you.
  • Access detailed breakdowns of the most important scientific studies.

Try FREE for 14 days

Research Breakdown on Ganoderma lucidum

1Sources and Composition


The mushroom Ganoderma Lucidum holds a place in a variety of Asian traditional medicine; it is most well known as Reishi, the name given to the mushroom by practitioners of Japanese medicine. In Traditional Chinese Medicine it is known as Lingzhi, and Korean medicine refers to it as Yeongji; in Taiwan it is sometimes referred to as Ling-Chih.[1] Other complimenting names given to Ganderma Lucidum include The 10,000 year Mushroom (Japanese), and the Mushroom of Immortality (Chinese).[2][3] The praise it receives is in part due to its bioactive effects, but may also be affected by the modes of distribution in the past (where, due to its rarity, only nobility or the privileged could afford it).[4][2] According to the year 2000 edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (an official compendium of drugs), Ganoderma Lucidum "acts to replenish Qi, ease the mind, and relieve cough and asthma, and it is recommended for dizziness, insomnia, palpitation, and shortness of breath".[2]

Traditional usage of Ganoderma Lucidum extends to as anti-cancer and anti-tumor, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral (specifically against herpes and HIV), as well as anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory. Pro-longevity claims have also been made.[2]

Traditionally known as the God of Fungi, although associations with nobility may have raised it to undeserved god-like status. Used for almost everything and said to work for everything; tends to be more focused on immunity, sickness, and cancer

1.2Comparison of Lingzhi sources

In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (v.2000) both Ganoderma Lucidum (Red Lingzhi) and Sinensis (Purple Zingzhi) are listed as Lingzhi[5][6] Despite both being referred to as Lingzhi in Chinese medicine, these two species have some shared and differing properties. The term Ling Zhi can extend to more mushrooms, and ancient Chinese texts (ShenNong Ben Cao Jing and from the Qui/Han Dynasty and Ben Cao Gang Mu from the Ming Dynasty, the latter of which is considered the first pharmacopoeia[7]) indicated up to 6 types of Ling Zhi. The possible other Ganoderma mushrooms implicated here are atrum, luteum, tsugae, tropicum, tenue, applantum, asutrale, and capense; all other 250+ strains of Ganoderma known worldwide currently were not known during the era in China Ling Zhi was used as medicine. Ganoderma Lucidum is seen as the 'most medicinal' Ling Zhi, and is the strain that permeates into Korean and Japanese (Kampo) medicine.[3]

They (in reference to the two main strains, Purple and Red Lingzhi) differ in levels of the bioactive ergosterol and some triterpenoids[8] and the genetic influence of triterpenoids on monocytes (immune cells) shares about 26% similarity between species at best;[5] polysaccharide content does not differ as significantly.[9] In assessing their influences on the genome, it was demonstrated that 90% ethanolic extracts of the two respective mushrooms differnetially influence immunity.[5] When investigating genetic cross-over between the species, the similarities are relatively diverse with genes involved in cell development (21%), negative regulation of cellular process (16%), cellular protein metabolic process (16%), signal transduction (14%), and transcription (14%). Of the top 20 activity genes between the two species, they are most involved in immunomodulation and notable genes are the upregulation of IL-1B, IL-8, CLEC4E, BIRC3 and ADAMDEC1 with downregulation of Glycoprotein A33 and several genes with unknown actions.[5]

Beyond species, different locations that grow Ganoderma Lucidum can markedly differ in quantities of bioactives.[10] At least one study investigating over-the-counter Reishi products noted that out of 11 randomly selected products, the triterpenoids ranged from indeterminate to 7.8% and polysaccharides from 1.1-5.8%, the differences was attributed to differences in production method (with water soluble extracts possessing less triterpenoids) and growth conditions.[3] One study growin Reishi noted somewhat similar levels of triterpenoids overall, but the specific triterpenoids fluctuated wildy between samples.[11]

The triterpenoid (ethanolic extract) of these two species (Lucidum and Sinensis) markedly differs in their biological effects, but neither species is inactive in any way; the polysaccharides have more similarities between the two. There is also moderate to large differences between crops of Ganoderma Lucidum


Mushrooms in general tend to be 90% water or so, which makes a basic mushroom 'extract' dehydrated mushroom powder (and thus 1g extract, if unspecified, may be about as potent as 10g of the mushroom). Beyond that, they tend to be a good source of protein (10-40% of the non-water weight) carbohydrates (3-28%), fiber (3-32%) and then trace Essential Vitamins or Minerals.[12][3] Ganoderma is on the high end for fiber, low end for carbohydrate, moderate to high end for protein and has a relatively low ash (mineral) content.[13] Beyond the basics, Ganoderma Lucidum possesses unique bioactive molecules including:

  • A variety of Bioactive polysaccharides[14][15][16][17] that tend to be the components that interact with the immune system[18] and are subdivided into β-1,3-glucans and polysaccharide peptides like peptidoglycan.

  • Water-soluble Polysaccharide Peptides, or carbs with amino acids in the structure. They include GLPS peptide (GLPP),[19][6] GLPG,[20] GLIS,[21] PGY,[22] and F3[23]

  • β-1,3-Glucans (subset of polysaccharides) sometimes called 'Curdlan' [24] and some other Glucan molecules[25]

  • Over 120 triterpenoid compounds[26][27] which can be separated into those with a carboxylic side chain (Ganoderma Acids) and those without (Ganoderma alcohols). Some are referred to as lucidenic acids[28][29]

  • Nucleotide bases (thymine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine) the sum of all ranging from 303-1217mcg/g (in the mushroom cap) and 22-334mcg/g in the stem.[30]

  • Some bioactive proteins, such as LZ-8 (Lingzhi-8)[31] and Ganodermin[32]

  • A 114kDa hexameric lectin, a glycoprotein with 9.3% sugar[33]

  • A reversible and highly specific competitive alpha-glucosidase inhibitor known as SKG-3 with an IC50 value of 4.6mcg/mL[34]

  • Ergostane sterols[35] and ergosterol, known as pro-vitamin D2[36]

  • C19 fatty acids (nonadecenoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid)[37][38]

  • Riboflavin

  • Vitamin C

  • Copper and Zinc[39]

  • Selenium at up to 72mcg/g dry weight (best estimate of wet weight is 7.2ug/g) and can biotransform selenium into selenium-containing proteins[40][41]

  • Germanium (the ion, not to be confused with Geranium) at up to 489mcg/g[42]

There is also a large Chitin content in the Ganoderma Lucidum mushroom, which is indigestible (and for the most part, not bioactive) and makes the mushroom tough to chew.[3] The mushroom is hazel/red in color, which is due to the polysaccharide content.

Polysaccharides (the carb and fiber content), Peptidoglycans (carbs with amino acids branching off of them), and Triterpenoids (fat-soluble molecules with a structure similar to cholester) are the main reasons for the activity of Ganoderma Lucidum. Other molecules, like the C19 fatty acids, may also play a role but are less studied. The mushroom is pretty to look at and pretty hard to chew

1.4Structure and Properties

The main bioactives of Ganoderma Lucidum tend to be seen as the triterpenoid component (broken down into Ganodermic acids, Ganodermic Alcohols, and Lucidenic Acids) and the polysaccharide content.

In regards to the differentiation between Ganoderma Acids and Alcohols (the triterpenoid compounds), acidic fractions appear to favor acid accrual and neutral fractions the alcohol fragment.[43] Triterpenoids appear to be hydrophobic, and are present in ethanolic or chrorophyll extractions; the polysaccharides are water-soluble and are the main bioactive in any Ganoderma water-soluble extract.

2Different forms of Ganoderma Lucidum

2.1The Actual Mushroom

Traditional usage of the mushroom for its medicinal properties was in the range of 25-100g of the fruiting body (mushroom head) daily and a course of 'treatment' is 1-3 months.[44][45] The fruiting body contains a large amount of chitin, and is generally seen as touch to chew; the polysaccharides in Ganoderma Lucidum give the mushroom a reddish/hazel hue.

By weight, the fruiting body of the mushroom is about 0.5% polysaccharides.[45]

2.2Water-soluble Extract

The water-soluble extract tends to be catered towards the polysaccharide content.

One patented blend, Ganopoly, is an extraction process yielding 98.8% content of polysaccharides by weight with no measurable triterpenoids; capsules contain 600mg total weight and 25% polysaccharides, and the recommended daily dose of 5,200mg is bioequivalent to 81g whole mushrooms based on polysaccharide content.[45]

2.3Ethanolic Extract

The ethanolic extract of Ganoderma Lucidum tends to be catered towards the triterpenoid content, contributing little to no polysaccharides.


The antlered form of Ganoderma (Ganoderma Lucidum AF; rokkaku-reishi) is the same species of Ganoderma Lucidum but varies in appearance, looking more like antlers than the standard mushroom.[46] It is rarely found in nature (although recently has been cultivated to higher levels), but consists of mostly the same bioactive compounds in regular Ganoderma Lucidum.[47][48] Although polysaccharide content is roughly similar at 40.1% of dry weight,[46] Triterpenoid compounds such as lucidenic acid, however, are higher in the antlered version[49][46] The specific amount of triterpene structures in the Antlered version range from 5875.8+/-80mcg/g and 7034.2+/-274.8mcg/g, whereas regular Ganoderma ranges from 2443.1+/-45.6mcg/g to 4441.2+/-328.4mcg/g; the lowest and highest recorded values being 140% and 58% higher in the Antlered version, respectively.[11]

Same as standard Ganoderma Lucidum, except with a higher triterpenoid content. Completely irrelevant if you are using a hot-water extract, but possibly beneficial to use the antlered version if consuming the entire mushroom or an ethanolic extract


The mycelium of a mushroom is a branching vegetable network that is seen as a growth of the mushroom, but not the stem nor the cap. Ganoderma Mycelium appears to contain many of the same bioactives that the fruiting body (cap) does,[50] and polysaccharides from the Mycelia have been used to similar efficacy as the fruiting body.[51][52][53]

A cheaper way to sell Ganoderma polysaccharides, and isn't completely inactive; can be useful for the frugal


Ganoderma Lucidum spores (Reishi Houshi) possesses a much higher content of triterpenoids on a weight basis when compared to standard Ganoderma Lucidum, but is insignificantly different or less than the antlered form of Ganoderma.[11] Whereas the total content of triterpenes in 6 strains of standard Ganoderma ranged from 2443.1+/-45.6mcg/g to 4441.2+/-328.4mcg/g, the spores averaged at 5549.2+/-317.3mcg/g (24% higher than the largest recorded Ganoderma strain). The antlered version of Ganoderma (Rokkaku-Reishi) averaged between 5875.8+/-80mcg/g and 7034.2+/-274.8mcg/g (all numbers dry weight).[11]

2.7Jisheng Injections

Jisheng injections are injections of Ganoderma Lucidum that have been reported to aid in sleep and increase appetite for up to 2 weeks after administration.[54]

3Molecular Targets

3.1Toll Like Receptors

Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) is a receptor that is highly expressed on cells in the immune system, such as dendritic cells[55] and macrophages;[56] polysaccharides from Ganoderma Lucidum appear to be a ligand for this receptor and activate it[56][57] which activates other pro-inflammatory proteins such as NF-kB (nuclear receptor) and TNF-α (cytokine). These effects are related to the polysaccharide and peptidoglycan content of Ganoderma Lucidum.[58]

When looking at the activation of NF-kB (correlates well with TLR4 activation in cells expressing TLR4), it appears to be activated when the pro-inflammatory stimuli LPS is not present[59][5] yet suppressed when LPS is coincubated;[60] this suggests that Ganoderma polysaccharides are a receptor modulator.

These same trends are seen with TNF-α (consequence of NF-kB activation, among other things) where Ganoderma Lucidum suppresses the increase of TNF-α induced by LPS[60] associated with less phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473)[61] and less IkB degradation and NF-kB activity.[62] When there is no proinflammatory stimuli, Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides reliably increase TNF-a in animal models[63][64] and isolate human cells[65][66] secondary to macrophage activation.[67] One human study on persons with breast cancer noted an improvement in immunomodulation as it pertains to cancer in response to 3g Ganoderma spores daily, suggesting the above works in humans.[68]

Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides appear to be a TLR4 receptor modulator, and using Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a proinflammatory reference Ganoderma can increase inflammation when there is no inflammatory stimuli present and attenuate inflammation when there is a stimuli present. NF-kB activation and TNF-α levels follow this same pattern, and Ganoderma appears to be a context dependent pro and anti-inflammatory (immune system modulator)

The cytokine known as Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) is normally induced by TNF-α,[69] yet does not occur with Ganoderma-induced TNF-α;[62] a compound in Ganoderma appears to interfere with MMP9 mRNA and protein content by interfering with the promotor in the nucleus;[62] this may be related to the triterpenoids[70][71][72] and at least one peptidoglycan.[62] Another cytokine, MCP-1, is suppressed by the water soluble extract (usually polysaccharides) yet induced by the ethanolic extract (triterpenoids).[73]

Some triterpenoids (usually in ethanolic extracts) may also have immunomodulatory properties as they have been noted ot upregulate IL-2, IL-4, and IL-8 in vitro[73] while inhibiting NF-kB activation via AP-1[72] which is due to ERK phosphorylation; MEK inhibitors are synergistic in this regard with Ganoderma triterpenoids.[71]

Ganoderma may disregulate the connections between inflammation and the carcinogenic consequences of inflammation, but more research is required to assess practical relevance of this (as many compounds in Ganoderma act in different manners)



After oral administration of a blend of Reishi (13.5% polysaccharides, 6% triterpenoids) at 500mg/kg bodyweight in rats and another blend (13.4% triterpenoids) at 500mg/kg bodyweight in rats show a Tmax of around 90 minutes for Ganoderic Acid A, F, and H[74] which were similar to a previous study measuring these triterpenoids.[75] Peaks were seen quite rapidly, with a few triterpenoids appearing in plasma in relatively high quantities in under 20 minutes after ingestion.[74][75]


5.1Cholinergic Neurotransmission

Numerous (18) triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum have been shown to possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions with an IC50 value ranging from 9.40μM to 31.03μM, potency favoring those with an n-butyl ester side chain.[76]

Some triterpenoids have shown acetylcholinesterase inhibition when tested in vitro; the practical relevance of this to oral supplementation is currently not known


Triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum appear to be able to act as NGF and BDNF mimetics, and enhance neuronal survival in vitro.[77] However, Ganoderma polysaccharides have been shown in vitro to induce MAPK activation and neuronal differentiation in rat neurons and prevent NGF-induced apoptosis.[78]


Ganoderma Lucidum has been implicated in reducing neuronal loss induced by kainic-acid excitotoxicity[79] and has been demonstrated to reduce dopaminergic losses secondary to its anti-inflammatory effects on microglia, as coincubation of LPS (pro-inflammatory agent) and Ganoderma can reduce the harmful effects of LPS on microglia and dopaminergic neurons.[80][81]


One large study has been conducted on Ganoderma Lucidum and 'Neurasthenia', which is a term that has its diagnostic criteria to 'Chronic Fatigue Syndrome' (despite neurasthenia not being a commonly used term in the West).[45] Neurasthenia is a functional diagnosis of at least two of the following symptoms: muscular aches and pains, dizziness, headaches, sleep disturbance, inability to relax, irritability, and dyspepsia[82] and varies between affecting 0.5-2.4% of tested populations.[83][84][85]

The study found that in a sample of 132 persons with diagnosed neurasthenia (as assessed by the criteria mentioned before from the ICD-10) given Ganopoly (Ganoderma Polysaccharide at 25% by weight) at 5,400mg daily, bioequivalent to 81g of the mushroom, found that after 2 months of supplementation that there were significant improvements in measured parameters overall with more persons reporting 'significant improvement' and less reporting 'regression' of well-being.[45] Improvements in fatigue and well-being were both noted with no significant side-effects, although a pilot study done by the same research group ntoed that 4 weeks usage was insufficient in alleviating symptoms; suggesting chronic usage is needed.[45]

Mechanism as to why Ganoderma aids in fatigue syndrome is unknown, but apparently it does

5.5Sedation and Sleep

Ganoderma Lucidum has traditionally been used as a tranquilizing agent (An-Shen effect) for treatment of restlessness and insomnia.[86] 80mg/kg intra-gastric dosing of Ganoderma polysaccharide for 5 days in rats was able to induce a hypnotic effect, and works synergistically with TNF-α (half the dose of Reishi, plus 12.5mg/kg TNF-α, was as effective as 80mg/kg; a TNF-α antibody abolished the effects of Reishi).[86] There was no effect on day 1 and 2 of supplementation, but total and non-REM sleep as well as TNF-α concentrations in the serum (31%), hypothalamus (37%), and dorsal raphe (31%) from 3 days onwards.[86] Beyond being synergistic with TNF-α, Ganoderma water extract has been demonstrated to enhance barbituate-induced sleep, and increased delta-wave activity by non-barbituate mediated means[87][88] in a dose dependent manner.[54] Ganoderma may, at least in part, be a benzodiazepine receptor agonist.[87]

In regards to general locomotor activity (moving around), moderate doses (80mg/kg) in rats do not inherently reduce spontaneous activity after a single dose but appear to reduce spontaneous activity after 3 days of supplementation.[87] Chronic usage appears to be more effective than acute usage,[89] although injections of Ganoderma (Jisheng injections) can induce reductions quite acutely.[54]

Ganoderma Lucidum appears to be a sedative, able to induce relaxation and sleep while reducing spontaneous movement during waking; might be good to pair with other compounds (Valerian or Melatonin?) as it does not inherently increase REM sleep time (instead increasing overall sleep time and reducing sleep latency, the time it takes to fall asleep)

6Cardiovascular Health

6.1Blood Flow

In vitro studies on triterpenes from Ganoderma suggest that they possess fibrolynic and anti-platelet functions,[90][91] although when Reishi is ingested at 1.5g for 4 weeks there are no noticeable effects on blood flow and hemostasis.[92]


After oral ingestion of 0.3g/kg Ganoderma extract in diabetic mice, hepatic and extra-hepatic expression of HMG-CoA reductase (target enzyme of statins) is unaffected[93] despite in vitro studies suggesting otherwise.[94] Alternatively, in vitro studies suggest cholesterol synthesis is inhibited at another step, inhibiting the 14alpha-demethylase enzyme; cells treated with Ganoderma triterpenoids show increased levels of lanosterol and squalene and 25% reductions in cholesterol.[95][96] Ganoderma also possesses a non-competitive cholesterol esterase inhibitor, the enzyme that is required for dietary cholesterol to be absorbed.[97] Via inhibition of this enzyme, cholesterol uptake from the diet can be reduced,[98][99] increased fecal cholesterol has been noted in experimental animals fed Ganoderma Lucidum before.[94]

When tested in vivo, three separate studies on rats suggest that cholesterol levels can be reduced after consumption of Ganoderma polysaccharides; however, these studies were in models of type I diabetes.[100][101][102]

Ganoderma Lucidum may be able to reduce cholesterol, but whether this affects healthy persons and the mechanism(s) by which it is practically relevant need a bit more research

7Inflammation and Immunology


Reishi has been noted to increase IL-2 production in T cells (Specifically, Foxp3+CD4+ T cells) secondary to the CD18 receptor, which is activated when the reishi protein LZ-8 (1μg/mL) acts on the CD45 receptor.[103] An increase in IL-2 secretion from murine, jurkat, and human CD4+ T cells has been noted with LZ-8 at 1μg/mL even without any antigen present.[104][105] This production of IL-2 depends on phospholipase C (PLC) activation and subsequent activation of calcium channels recruiting PKC alpha (PKCα) and theta (PKCθ)[104] which serve as intermediates in CD18 signalling in T cells, with MAPKs and ROS production both also playing intermediate roles.[104]

The LZ-8 immunomodulatory protein found in Reishi increases IL-2 secretion from CD4+ T cells secondary to activating PLC and two PKC proteins

The increase in IL-2 that occurs with Reishi (from 1μg/mL LZ-8 acting on CD45) results in an increase in IL-10 secreted from T cells.[103]

The increase in IL-2 from the LZ-8 protein in Reishi also promotes an increase in IL-10

7.2Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells are an immune cell that exhibit cytotoxicity towards certain cells such as tumor cells and are a mechanism by which cancer therapy can be undergone vicariously through the immune system. In particular, when tumor cells attempt to metastasis (spread to other organs) the main mechanism by which they are destroyed are via the immune system;[106][107] NK cells tend to be seen as anti-metastatic.[108][109]

When looking at Human Interventions and NK-cells, both studies noted increases in NK cell activity although one was statistically insignificant[110] whereas the other noted a statistically relevant increase of 34.5 +/- 11.8%[111] associated with ingestion of Ganoderma polysaccharides. These effects have been reported in mice after administration of either Ganoderma polysaccharides[112] or select triterpenoids.[113]

May increase the overall count of Natural Killer cells in the immune system, although the two human studies that noted an inrease only had one returning statistically significant

It has been noted that Ganoderma can prevent fibrogenin-induced protection of tumor cells (where fibrin coagulates and forms a coat, preventing NK cells from acting on tumors[114]) by preventing fibrin from associating with cancer cells; indirectly enhancing NK-cell cytotoxicity.[115] Fibrin normally associates with αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins on tumor cell surfaces, and Ganoderma can reduce this association to near control levels.[115] This same study noted that Ganoderma decreased lung metastasis in mice (after injection) via the polysaccharide component,[115] and Ganoderma can enhance cytotoxicity of tumors in 'evasive' tumors.[116]

May, independent of NK cell count, increase the cytotoxicity of NK cells on tumors by preventing fibrin formation on tumor cells. Fibrin protection on tumor cells may 'coat' them against NK cells, and Ganoderma can preserve the actions of NK cells by reducing this protective coat


Ganoderma water-extract (polsaccharides) have been shown to increase peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo[117][118][6] as well as increase their size, activity, and induce pseudopodia.[119] Secondary to the 'activated' macrophages IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production has been shown to be enhanced[119][6] alongside increased TNF-α mRNA at concentrations of 25-400ug/mL,[120] and mRNA transcrition of various interleukins.[119] At least the TNF-α production has been noted in peripheral mononuclear cells as well,[121]

The secretion of TNF-α (and some other cytokines) by isolated triterpenoids and beta-glucans appears to be synergsitic with pro-inflammatory LPS as both work on inducing activity of p38 MAPK while suppressing the c-JNK signalling pathway[122][47] although the opposite (suppression of TNF-α) has been reported in some studies.[60]

Consumption of 500mg/L (drinking water) in mice enhanced macrophage activation by by 340% relative to control and increase IL-1β and TNF-α secretion (theoretically) secondary to nitric oxide production in macrophages, and was able to increased phagocytosis rates.[117] Nitric Oxide production may be increased secondary to increased iNOS protein content in peritoneal macrophages.[123] These effects are also seen with 25-200mg/kg bodyweight isolated polysaccharide pepties (GLPP).

One study investigating the effects of polysaccharides on intracellular calcium noted that Ganoderma can induce cellular release of Ca2+ ions and also induce extracellular influx of Ca2+.[6] It is hypothesized that these may be secondary to IP3 formation, or secondary to PKC activation which has been observed.[124][125] Alternate theories include TLR4 activation and the signalling cascade from that receptor, which some polsaccharides have been shown to act upon.[57][56]

Mechanistically, Macrophages appear to have their activity and phagocytic ability increase secondary to increase cytokine production (from nitric oxide signalling). What exactly causes this nitric oxide signalling is not completely hammered out yet, but may be through acting on TLR4 receptors

Polysaccharide peptides from Ganoderma at 100mg/kg oral ingestion have also been shown to protect macrophages from oxidative damage in vivo (mice) and prevent morphological changes to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum as assessed by electron and light microscope.[126][6] It also demonstrated a rehabilitative effect, and 5 days of supplementation with the same dose mitochondrial membrane potential in macrophages (previously damaged by oxidative insult) was recovered.[6]

A protective effect may also exist for macrophages, which could possible extend to cardioprotection (preventing foam cell formation, could alleviate artherosclerotic buildup)

7.4Dendritic Cells

On dendritic cells, Ganoderma polysaccharides can increase the expression of I-A/I-E and CDl1c on the cell surface as well as increase secretion of IL12p40 and IL23p19[127] as well as increase production of all four aforementioned proteins.[128] This study was conducted in cultured murine bone marrow cells in the presence of LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) and suggests that Ganoderma polysaccharides (Gl-PS) can enhance the adaptive immune response. This study was corroborated by one showing that enhancement of dendritic cells enhanced Cytotoxic T-cell activity via (IFN)-γ and granzyme B pathways.[129] This enhancement of cytotoxic T-cell activity has been noted elsewhere, and is through TLR4 activation and NF-kB translocation; inhibiting either the receptor of the MAPK signalling cascade or NF-kB activation prevented the enhancement from occurring; showing that the effects of Ganoderma on active immunity are secondary to pro-inflammatory signalling.[55][130]

At least one study has noted that extracts produced by organic solvents (containing triterpenoids) do not influence dendritic cells[127] like the polysaccharides do.[23]

Increasing expression and activity of Dendritic cells (which 'present' toxins to the killing immune cells) via inflammatory signalling can increase adaptive immunity, and theoretically could be used acutely to fight off sickness

7.5T cells

Promotion of naive CD4+ T-cells into effector T-cells occurs under the influence of cytokines. There are four types of T-cell types; Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg[131] and all are intimiately involved with the aforementioned dendritic (antigen-presenting protein, or APN) cells. Interestingly, Ganoderma beta-glucans can increase proliferation of immature CD4+ T-cells just as potently as LPS, a pro-inflammatory molecule.[127]

Ganoderma has been implicated in increase Th1 differentiation. Additionally, the third subset of T-cells (Th17) seems to be preferentially increased after polysaccharide ingestion without inflammatory stimuli via increasing IL-23p19 secretion by dendritic cells.[127] Conversely, incubation with LPS to induce pro-inflammatory signalling suppressed IL-23p19 production and favored IL-12p40 production, which was barely existent without LPS.[127] The increase in IL-23p19 production is mediated by beta-glucans in Ganoderma (and has been reported elsewhere[132]) and is via the ERK/MEK pathway; all the above effects have been seen in vivo after oral ingestion.[127]

An increase in Treg cell (Foxp3+; a major class of T regulatory cells[133]) has been noted with the LZ-8 protein in Reishi, where 1μg/mL applied to CD4+ cells increased Treg expression 4 to 10-fold resulting in increased IL-2 and IL-10 secretion;[103] implanting these activated Treg cells into mice with intestinal inflammation show suppressive effects (seen with other Treg cell inducers such as lactobacillus reuteri).[103]

The stimulatory effect of Reishi appears to extend to T cells

There is a method of training for athletes known as "living high and training low" which involves training at or near sea level and training at a higher altitude, thought to achieve the benefits of hypoxic training[134] although it is associated with immunosuppression (related to NK cells and T cells).[135]

In football players subject to a hypoxic sleep condition (mimicking 2500m altitude) and training in normoxic conditions Reishi supplementation at 2.5-5g (water soluble polysaccharide extract) for 28 days noted that while the short-term immunosuppression (assessed by CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cell counts) was attenuated in control the CD3+ T-cells with 5g Reishi were stimulated past control and placebo levels.[136]

Alterations in CD3+ T-cells from hypoxic training appear to be fully normalized and a bit reversed with 5,000mg Reishi supplementation

7.6B cells

Reishi polysaccharides (water-soluble fragments known as F3[137]) have been demonstrated to induce splenic B-cell differentiation and cause activation of B cells in mouse spleen cells,[138][57] and induce differentiation into IgM secreting cells (plasma cells).[139] The potency of the Reishi-induced induction of B-cell activity was similar to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory research standard.[139] In accordance with this observed differentiation, it induces activity of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) via activating TLR4 and/or TLR2 receptors (as inhibition of either alone did not alter results much, signifying a shared post-cytosolic pathway) and signalling through p38/MAPK.[139][140]

In mature B-cells (plasma cells), increased content was seen (assessed by increased CD138 detection after 3 days) and increased antibody secretion was noted.[139] Ig secretion appears to be mediated through JNK, NF-kB, and MEK-ERK1/2 as inhibition of any of these three reduces Ig secretion but not Blimp-1 induction.[140]

No significant effects on differentiation or activation were seen in human peripheral B-cells[140] yet an increase in IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α was seen, and no induction of TNFα from B-cells.[140]

8Skeletal Muscle and Physical Performance

8.1Muscular Endurance

Ganoderma Lucidum at 500mg/kg bodyweight to rats undergoing a weighted forced swim test, Ganoderma Lucidum was actually associated with less time to exhaustion; perhaps secondary to its sedative effects.[141]

9Interactions with Hormones


Ganoderma Lucidum possesses 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, able to attenuate the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Out of a cluster (n=19) of medicinal mushrooms examined, Ganoderma appears to be the most effective.[142][143] The ethanolic extracts are more potent than the water-soluble extracts, and Ganoderols F[144] and B[145] appear to be the most bioactive molecules. The inhibition is concentration dependent.[146]

Ganoderols from Reishi appear to have inhibitory potential on 5-alpha reductase enzymes, and underlie how Reishi is one of the more potent tested medicinal mushrooms for its anti-androgenic effects

Beyond 5α reductase inhibition, triterpenoids such as Ganoderic acid DF can block the androgen receptor when their concentration is high (15uM) and prevent androgen-receptor activation by DHT.[146] Increasing DHT concentration does not appear to override the blockade, and once a certain threshold is passed Ganoderma exerts potent in vitro androgen receptor blocking.[146]

Increases in testosterone have been reported in mice, and are synergistic with 5α-reductase inhibitors (including finasteride).[147] After oral ingestion of 6mg ethanolic extract in older men, however, no significant effects were seen on circulating testosterone.[148]

In humans, does not appear to affect circulating testosterone levels. However, it possesses multiple mechanisms in how it can exert anti-androgenic activity and may reduce the effects of androgens independent of circulating testosterone levels. The one human study noted a nonsignificant decrease in PSA levels, a biomarker for androgen receptor activity


Ganoderma Lucidum has been shown in vitro to reduce expression of the estrogen receptor (alpha) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.[149]

10Interactions with Glucose Metabolism


Two compounds in Ganoderma Lucidum, a fragment known as SKG-3[34] and a triterpenoid called Ganosterol B[150] have both been demonstrated to inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme, which breaks down dietary starches and disaccharides into glucose so the carbs can be absorbed.


Aldose reductase is the first enzyme that reduces glucose into polyols (such as sorbitol), and its inhibition serves a therapeutic role in diabetes management, specifically diabetic retinopathy.[151] Reishi possesses aldose reductase activity, and appears to be one of the most potent mushrooms at doing so,[152] the ethanol extract has been shown in vivo to reduce polyol formation in the rat eye.[152] When looking at the IC50 values of Ganoderma acids (the more potent portion of the triterpenoids), 17 tested fragments have an IC50 value below 200uM whereas some are very potent at 22.8uM (ganoderic acid Df) and 43.8uM (ganoderic acid C2).[27] It appears the carboxyl group on the side-chain is critical for aldose reductase inhibition, and double bonds on C20-C22 as well as hydroxyl groups on C3,7,11, and 15 increase inhibition (this 'ideal' molecule is ganoderic acid C2).[27]

Aldose Reductase inhibition may underlie the ability of the ethanolic extract for alleviating some complications of diabetes

The first investigation on Reishi and diabetes came from a study injecting 100mg/kg bodyweight polysaccharides (Ganoderan A and B) into mice, which subsequently demonstrated a 50% reduction in blood glucose levels with some noticeable effect on blood glucose reduction for up to 24 hours after injection.[153] Ganoderan B was later reported to increase insulin secretion and modulate glucose metabolism in liver tissue.[154] A related polysaccharide, Ganoderan C, also possesses hypoglycemic action via increasing insulin.[155] Polysaccharides can act on pancreatic beta-cells (where insulin is producted) where they induce Ca2+ influx into beta-cells to induce insulin secretion.[156] Ganoderma polysaccharides also exert an anti-oxidative protective effect on pancraetic beta-cells, and can reduce apoptosis while modulating biomarkers of apoptosis such as Bax/Bcl-2.[157][100][158]

Polysaccharides, if reaching the pancreas, may stimulate insulin release and subsequently reduce blood glucose levels

Ganoderma also appears to possess a proteoglycan (polysaccharide with amino acids) PTP1B competitive inhibitor, dubbed Fudan-Yueyang-Ganoderma Lucidum, possessing an IC50 value of 5.12+/-0.05 μg/mL.[159][160] This proteoglycan, called FYGL for short, contains 77+/-3% polysaccharide and 16.8+/-0.9% protein, and possesses a certain extraction process mentioned here.[159] Oral administration of FYGL can decreased blood glucose in type 1 diabetic mice, as well as both reducing serum insulin and increasing insulin sensitivity.[160] At oral doses of 50 and 150mg/kg bodyweight in mice over 4 weeks, improvements in glucose and insulin sensitivity are observed and the higher dose is comparable to 300mg/kg Metformin.[159] These effects have been observed in Type II diabetes as well, increasing the insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle.[101] No toxicity of this particular extract was seen at up to 6g/kg daily.[159]

A proteoglycan from Ganoderma appears to act as a PTP1B inhibitor, and may prolong signalling through its receptor (which would reduce the rate of which the receptor desensitizes to insulin); it is moderately potent and has in vivo support for efficacy, but its IC50 value is weaker than other compounds such as ursolic acid or berberine

In diabetic mice, reductions in blood glucose have been seen and attributed to reduced hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) after 0.3g/kg oral ingestion for 4 weeks.[93] In vitro, activation of AMPK and increased glucose uptake have been noted with Reishi in fat cells as well.[161] Reductions in blood glucose after ingestion of 400mg/kg Ganoderma polysaccharides are roughly as potent as 30mg/kg Berberine, a potent hypoglycemic.[162]

Can reduce expression of PEPCK, and thus endogenous production of glucose in the liver; it is not as potent as Berberine, used as a reference compound

The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), a nuclear transcription activator, is induced by five triterpenpoids from the ethanolic fragment of Ganoderma Lucidum; ergosterol peroxide , lucidumol A, ganoderic acid TR, ganodermanontriol, and ganoderiol F.[163] General Lucidum extracts at 100ug/mL were able to induce FXR to 150% the level of the active control, CDCA (Chenodeoxycholic acid), whereas the 5 isolated triterpenoids at 10uM were similar in potency to CDCA at 25uM (with ganodermanontriol causing the highest increase, and erogsterol peroxide having the lowest EC50 of 0.85uM).[163] As the FXR monomer can activate GLUT4 vesicles,[164] this mechanism of action may play a role in the anti-diabetic effects of Ganoderma.

May activate FXR, which has potential relations to glucose uptake in cells


These effects have once been replicated in humans with hypertension (130/85 or above) or dyslipidemia, consuming 1.44g Ganoderma Lucidum extract (equivalent to 13.2g fresh mushroom) daily for 12 weeks found insignificant improvements in insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose.[165] Another trial[166] on 71 type II diabetic adults given 1800mg thrice daily Ganopoly (Ganoderma Polysaccharide, 5200mg daily) for 12 weeks was able to decrease HbA1c from 8.4% to 7.6%, and reduced postprandial blood glucose from 13.6mmol/L to 11.8mmol/L.

Oral ingestion of Ganoderma at 50 and 250mg/kg bodyweight was able to accelerate wound healing in a model of animal diabetes, which tend to have suppressed wound healing rates.[167] The mechanisms appear to be, in part, due to presveratrion of mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant enzymes.[167]

Via the ability of triterpenoids to inhibit the aldose reductase enzyme, Ganoderma Lucidum is being investigated for its usage in diabetic management to control production of polyols through aldose reductase and preserve retinal function in type II diabetics.

In diabetic mice, Ganoderma polysaccharides have been shown to reduce morphological damage to kidney tissue and exert a protective effect on kidney tissue.[168] This protective effect may extend to the pancreas[158] and has once been implicated in rats to reduce progression of type 1 diabetes via modulating the immune response, although the study has not been replicated.[169]

Shows potential to aid in wound healing, eye health, and kidney harm induced from Diabetes type II; either secondary to reducing blood glucose or via separate mechanisms (anti-inflammatory, aldose reductase)

11Hepatology (The Liver)

11.1Protective effects

Ganoderma Lucidum appears to have general protective effects on the liver, and has shown efficacy in protecting the liver from mineral (cadmium) toxicity,[170] D-galactosamine,[171] carbon tetrachloride,[172] benzo(a)pyrene,[173] Mycobacterium bovis infection,[174] and general oxidative stress.[175] Therapeutic effects have been seen in regards to fibrosis by thioacetamide,[176] hepatic tumor cells,[177][178]

11.2Viral infections

Ganoderma appears to possess anti-viral effects, and in vitro has been shown to inhibit the replication of the Hepatitis B virus in incubated liver cells.[179] It shows possible synergism when prepared with the root of the herbal Sophorae flavescentis, or Ku shen.[180] When investigaing these effects in humans, a blinded multicenter study of 90 persons with chronic hepatitis B infection and elevated AST levels given Ganoderma polysaccharides was shown to be able to reduce the amount of viral DNA and circulating antigen, but only significantly affected 25% of subjects in the experimental group[181] demonstrating potency but a lack of reliability in treating hepatitis B.

12Interactions with other Organ Systems


The triterpenoids in Ganoderma possess 5α-reductase inhibitory potential, inhibiting the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT)[182] and a triterpenoid concentrated ethanolic extract (10-50mg/kg) in rats can reduce the effects testosterone has on prostate growth with a potency between B-sitosterol (stronger than) and Finasteride (weaker than).[147] While the water extract had an IC50 of 0.29mg/mL, the ethanol extract was found to have an IC50 of 0.01mg/mL in inhibiting testosterone-induced prostatic growth in vitro (Finasteride had an IC50 of 1.06mcg/mL).[147] A complete recovery of urine flow (impeded during prostatic hypertrophy) was seen with 50mg/kg bodyweight, although beyond that there was no significant difference between the doses of 20 or 50mg/kg in rats[147] and this increase in urine flow rate has been seen after 6mg ethanolic extract in men with slight-to-moderate lower urinary tract symptoms.[148] Effects in these studies kicked in 2-4 weeks after the beginning of ingestion.

May reduce prostatic size secondary to anti-androgenic effects, and increase urinary flow rate in instances of benign prostatic hyperplasia

13Ganoderma and Cancer

13.1Popularity and Usage

Ganoderma appears to be a highly popular anti-cancer herb in the China area, as a survey of 4,149 survivors of breast cancer noted that 58.8% used Ganoderma on their own volition; it was positively associated with social well being and negatively associated with physical well being, and quite weakly associated on both accounts.[183] At least in leukocytes, Ganoderma Lucudium was found to upregulate 603 genes while suppressing the activity of 26.[5]

In the year of 2002, global production of Ganoderma Lucidum was estimated at 4700 tons; with 3800 tons being made in China.[184]

People like this mushroom for rehabilitative cancer treatment. No indication whether this is due to social renown or efficacy however

13.2General Cytotoxicity Overview

Ganoderma Lucidum has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis (cell death) in a remarkably wide amount of cells. It has been demonstrated to show in vitro efficacy in:

At least in vitro (not in a living creature), various mixtures of Ganoderma Lucidum appear to be able to induce tumor cell death. This seemingly broad and non-specific anti-cancer mechanism of action is not limited to one bioactive molecule. Triterpenoids (Ganoderic acids and alcohols, as well as Lucidenic acids) polysaccharides (regular, and selenium containing ones) and peptidoglycans have all been implicated

In regards to mouse studies, injections of the water-soluble polysaccharide (GL-1) can inhibit 95-98% of transplanted sarcoma 180 tumors in mice.[205] And similar results have been reported on S180 cells with injected glycoproteins at 50mg/kg bodyweight with 88% inhibition rates and full regression in a third of test animals.[206] These effects have been noted with low dose injections of 2mg/kg bodyweight with lower potency (74%) with 30% of animals showing complete regression, and daily oral_ administration had a lesser potency of 45-63% inhibition, and was seen in two trials feeding rats oral water-soluble Reishi extract.[3] Finally, oral administration of 2.5% Ganoderma Lucidum to the diet of mice resulted in inhibition of S180 tumor carrying mice as well as mammary tumors (MM-46).[48]

In regards to the prostate, a herbal blend containing Reishi (called TBS-101) was able to suppress PC-3 tumor growth when both the cancer cell line and the supplement were administered to mice.[200] Reductions in testosterone-induced tumor growth has also been attributed to the triterpenoid fragment of Ganoderma, which appears to be secondary to its ability to act as a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor.[207][145]

Lung adenoma formation has been reduced after 9 week oral administration of Ganoderma Lucidum Mycelium[208] and the triterpenoid fragment has been shown to be protective in mice injected with Lewis lung cancer cells.[209][113] Injections of basic water extracts also show efficacy in protecting the body from lung cancer.[210]

Reductions of count and size of hepatoma (HepG2) liver tumors up to 99% have been noted in rats after oral administration for 68 days of an (obscenely) high oral dose of 800mg/kg lucidenic acid, a triterpenoid unique to Ganoderma Lucidum.[177]

For colon cancers, preloading of a hot water extract can reduce the development of aberrant crypt foci and precancerous lesions in rats[211][212]

Mouse studies appear to be mimicking the anti-cancer effects seen in vitro, and a good deal of them are done in a rehabilitative/therapeutic manner as well. Only problem appears to be studies randomly using different fragments of Ganoderma Lucidum, which makes there surprisingly little replication done amongst the large amount of animal studies


Inhibiting angiogenesis is seen as a therapeutic mechanisms of chemotherapy, as reducing the creation of blood vessels to tumors can cut off their nutrient and blood supply to induce apoptosis (cell death).

In the presence of polysaccharides (F3) from Ganoderma, less signals of angiogensis (VEGFR-3 and CD105) were seen despite being in the presence of angiogenic growth factors, while downregulating angiogenesis in vitro.[213] The peptidoglycan content also may contribute towards inhibiting angiogenesis alongside polysaccharides.[214]

Reduction in angiogenesis have been noted in vivo, but was confounded with the addition of Genistein; a soy isoflavone.[215]

13.4Human Interventions

One recent human intervention noted that Ganoderma water-soluble extract (1.5g daily, about 14g of fresh mushrooms) consumed by persons with colorectal adenomas was able to reverse an increase in adenomas in control (0.66+/-0.1) to a decrease in the Ganoderma group ( -0.42+/-0.1).[216] Average size of adenomas also decreased with Ganoderma, while increasing in the control group.[216] Another study shows preliminary evidence that doses of 5.4g daily for 12 weeks have no significant adverse effects in advanced colon cancer,[110] and this dose and timing has been replicated with no significant adverse effects in advanced stage cancer patients.[111]

One study in lung cancer patients given a blend of Reishi known as Ganopoly (Polysaccharides) found increases in T cells, NK cells, and CD4/CD8 after treatment, and reported back 65% of patients having greater well-being.[217]

Surprisingly little human studies on people with cancer. The colon cancer study looks incredibly promising, but the latter two studies use the same protocol and dosage yet come up with slightly different conclusions. More replication and trials will be needed

14Interactions with Aesthetics


Ganoderma Lucidum appears to be able to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme with an IC50 of 0.32mg/mL;[218] inhibition of this enzyme, which is the rate-limiting step in melanin synthesis, is seen as a skin-lightening property.

15Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions

15.1Soy Isoflavones

Soy Isoflavones, particularily Genistein, has been created using Ganoderma as a fermentation vessel; Ganoderma expresses beta-glucosidase, which can cleave the glycosides of the soy isoflavones into their active aglycones. The supplement is then capsulated at up to 18% soy isoflavones (genistein at 10%, daidzein and glycetin at 6% and 2%) and 60% Ganoderma polysaccharides. This combination has been reported in one case study to cause complete regression of prostate cancer over 44 days of supplementation, decreasing prostate specific antigen (PSA) from 19.7ng/mL to 4.2ng/mL.[219]

In a larger scale study[220] using 5g of the above supplement daily (900mg total isoflavones, 3g polysaccharides) this case study was not replicated, and only 1 patient out of 52 had significant reduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 61% over 6 months. 35 patients continued progression of prostate cancer while 8 were stable and 9 regressed slightly between 3-19% reductions.[220] The patient with a 61% reduction was the only one noting a significant reduction in serum testosterone after 3 months, dropping from 3.3ng/mL to 1.94ng/mL whereas other persons experiencing minor regression merely fluctuated randomly.

This supplement has been reported to (for lack of a better term, despite being inaccurate) cure prostate cancer, but attempted replication suggests it was rare. There appears to be some thing with some people that makes them respond to this combination supplement more, and that thing is currently unknown but may be related to reductions in testosterone

15.2Vitamin C

It has been reported that Ganoderma Lucidum, in large doses of 5-10g daily, may cause loose stools; it has similarly been reported that superloading Vitamin C in the range of 6-12g can alleviate these loose stools.[44][7]

15.3Select Antibiotics

Ganoderma Lucidum extract has been shown in vitro to be synergistic with cephazolin.[221]

16Safety and Toxicology

16.1Acute studies

In rats, oral doses of 5g/kg bodyweight water-soluble Ganoderma Extract is not associated with any abnormal effects or toxic symptoms.[102]


After consumption of 1.44g Reishi extract (equivalent to 13.2g fresh mushroom) for 28 days was not associated with any toxicological signs of blood, liver, or cardiac parameters.[222] A non-significant beneficial trend was noted in this study for cardiac parameters (Triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C).[222]

16.3In Cancer therapy

16.4Case Studies

Two case studies associate powdered Ganoderma with hepatotoxic effects.[223] The subject was a 47 year old women with schizophrenia using lithium, perphenazine, and trihexyphenidil and who had been using traditionally boiled Lingzhi slices for several years with no effects, but developed hepatitis after 2 months of taking a 400mg powdered capsule.[223] There was necrosis of the liver cells (+70%) noted, and this is not observed with any of her other medications.[223] The other case study[224] was in a 78 year old chinese woman using felodipine for 2 years and had reported usage of Ganoderma via boiling the mushroom (traditional preparation) for up to a year, but switching to a new powdered formulation in the previous 4 weeks who suffered from signs of lethary and anorexia.[224] Neither case study was able to demonstrate causation.

The fact that both case studies had boiled Ganoderma Lucidum for a year or more prior to switching to capsules suggests that Ganoderma is not to blame per se, but not enough evidence exists to rule anything out


  1. ^ Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem. (2002)
  2. ^ a b c d Boh B, et al. Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceutically active compounds. Biotechnol Annu Rev. (2007)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A Medicinal Mushroom.
  4. ^ Lindequist U, Niedermeyer TH, Jülich WD. The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2005)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Cheng CH, Leung AY, Chen CF. The effects of two different ganoderma species (Lingzhi) on gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Nutr Cancer. (2010)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Lin ZB. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharmacol Sci. (2005)
  7. ^ a b Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma lucidum).
  8. ^ Lv GP, et al. Comparison of sterols and fatty acids in two species of Ganoderma. Chem Cent J. (2012)
  9. ^ Xie J, et al. Comparison of polysaccharides from two species of Ganoderma. Molecules. (2012)
  10. ^ Lu J, et al. Quality Difference Study of Six Varieties of Ganoderma lucidum with Different Origins. Front Pharmacol. (2012)
  11. ^ a b c d Gao JJ, et al. Quantitative determination of bitter principles in specimens of Ganoderma lucidum using high-performance liquid chromatography and its application to the evaluation of ganoderma products. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2004)
  12. ^ Borchers AT, et al. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. (1999)
  13. ^ Non-volatile components of several medicinal mushrooms.
  14. ^ Bao XF, Dong Q, Fang JN. Structure and Conformation Behavior of a Glucan from Spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). (2000)
  15. ^ Bao X, et al. Structural and immunological studies of a major polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Carbohydr Res. (2001)
  16. ^ Bao X, et al. Chemical modifications of the (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan from spores of Ganoderma lucidum and investigation of their physicochemical properties and immunological activity. Carbohydr Res. (2001)
  17. ^ Bao XF, et al. Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry. (2002)
  18. ^ Ye L, et al. NMR characterization for polysaccharide moiety of a glycopeptide. Fitoterapia. (2010)
  19. ^ Ho YW, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated rheumatoid synovial fibroblast. Mol Cell Biochem. (2007)
  20. ^ Li Z, Liu J, Zhao Y. Possible mechanism underlying the antiherpetic activity of a proteoglycan isolated from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro. J Biochem Mol Biol. (2005)
  21. ^ Ji Z, et al. Immunomodulation of RAW264.7 macrophages by GLIS, a proteopolysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol. (2007)
  22. ^ Wu Y, Wang D. A new class of natural glycopeptides with sugar moiety-dependent antioxidant activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies. J Proteome Res. (2009)
  23. ^ a b Chien CM, et al. Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum alter cell immunophenotypic expression and enhance CD56+ NK-cell cytotoxicity in cord blood. Bioorg Med Chem. (2004)
  24. ^ Bao XF, et al. Purification, characterization, and modification of T lymphocyte-stimulating polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2002)
  25. ^ Dong Q, et al. A novel water-soluble β-D-glucan isolated from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Carbohydr Res. (2012)
  26. ^ Wang XM, et al. HPLC determination of four triterpenoids in rat urine after oral administration of total triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharm Biomed Anal. (2007)
  27. ^ a b c Fatmawati S, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Structure-activity relationships of ganoderma acids from Ganoderma lucidum as aldose reductase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2011)
  28. ^ Weng CJ, et al. The anti-invasive effect of lucidenic acids isolated from a new Ganoderma lucidum strain. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2007)
  29. ^ Lucidenic acids-rich extract from antlered form of Ganoderma lucidum enhances TNFα induction in THP-1 monocytic cells possibly via its modulation of MAP kinases p38 and JNK.
  30. ^ Gao JL, et al. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of nucleosides and nucleobases in Ganoderma spp. by HPLC-DAD-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. (2007)
  31. ^ van der Hem LG, et al. Ling Zhi-8: studies of a new immunomodulating agent. Transplantation. (1995)
  32. ^ Wang H, Ng TB. Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Peptides. (2006)
  33. ^ Thakur A, et al. Purification and characterization of lectin from fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum: lectin from Ganoderma lucidum. Biochim Biophys Acta. (2007)
  34. ^ a b Kim SD, Nho HJ. Isolation and characterization of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. J Microbiol. (2004)
  35. ^ Ma J, et al. New lanostanoids from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Prod. (2002)
  36. ^ Liu JJ, et al. Determination of ergosterol in Ganoderma lucidum from different varieties and cultured tree species by HPLC. Zhong Yao Cai. (2011)
  37. ^ Gao P, et al. Isolation and identification of C-19 fatty acids with anti-tumor activity from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom). Fitoterapia. (2012)
  38. ^ Fukuzawa M, et al. Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity. Biol Pharm Bull. (2008)
  39. ^ Matute RG, et al. Copper and zinc bioaccumulation and bioavailability of Ganoderma lucidum. J Med Food. (2011)
  40. ^ Falandysz J. Selenium in edible mushrooms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. (2008)
  41. ^ Positive Effect of Selenium on the Immune Regulation Activity of Ling Zhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), Proteins In Vitro.
  42. ^ Chiu SW, et al. Nutritional value of ganoderma extract and assessment of its genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity using comet assays of mouse lymphocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. (2000)
  43. ^ Fatmawati S, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Inhibition of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Ganoderma lucidum. Planta Med. (2010)
  44. ^ a b Effective Dosage of the Extract of Ganoderma Lucidum in the Treatment of Various Ailments.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Tang W, et al. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract in neurasthenia. J Med Food. (2005)
  46. ^ a b c Kohguchi M, et al. Immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2004)
  47. ^ a b Watanabe K, et al. Lucidenic acids-rich extract from antlered form of Ganoderma lucidum enhances TNFα induction in THP-1 monocytic cells possibly via its modulation of MAP kinases p38 and JNK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2011)
  48. ^ a b Nonaka Y, et al. Anti-tumor activities of the antlered form of Ganoderma lucidum in allogeneic and syngeneic tumor-bearing mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2006)
  49. ^ Min BS, et al. Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1998)
  50. ^ Wang JL, et al. A new ganoderic acid from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia. J Asian Nat Prod Res. (2010)
  51. ^ Hanaoka R, et al. The water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (Designated as MAK) ameliorates murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Scand J Immunol. (2011)
  52. ^ Yang XJ, et al. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. World J Gastroenterol. (2006)
  53. ^ Chan WK, et al. Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy. J Altern Complement Med. (2005)
  54. ^ a b c The Hypnotic and Sedative Actions of the Spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) in Mice.
  55. ^ a b Lin YL, et al. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Leukoc Biol. (2005)
  56. ^ a b c Hsu HY, et al. Extract of Reishi polysaccharides induces cytokine expression via TLR4-modulated protein kinase signaling pathways. J Immunol. (2004)
  57. ^ a b c Shao BM, et al. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2004)
  58. ^ Tsai CC, et al. Oligosaccharide and peptidoglycan of Ganoderma lucidum activate the immune response in human mononuclear cells. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  59. ^ Yu Q, et al. Macrophage Immunomodulatory Activity of a Purified Polysaccharide Isolated from Ganoderma atrum. Phytother Res. (2012)
  60. ^ a b c Dudhgaonkar S, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Int Immunopharmacol. (2009)
  61. ^ Jiang J, et al. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Nutr Cancer. (2004)
  62. ^ a b c d Lin CH, et al. GMI, a Ganoderma immunomodulatory protein, down-regulates tumor necrosis factor α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 via NF-κB pathway in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  63. ^ Chen HS, et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. (2004)
  64. ^ Gao Y, et al. Antitumor activity and underlying mechanisms of ganopoly, the refined polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in mice. Immunol Invest. (2005)
  65. ^ Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in human monocytic leukemia cells: from gene expression to network construction.
  66. ^ a b Chung WT, et al. Effect of mycelial culture broth of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth characteristics of human cell lines. J Biosci Bioeng. (2001)
  67. ^ Ahmadi K, Riazipour M. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on cytokine release by peritoneal macrophages. Iran J Immunol. (2007)
  68. ^ Zhao H, et al. Spore Powder of Ganoderma lucidum Improves Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Endocrine Therapy: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2012)
  69. ^ Lin CC, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-kappaB in A549 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. (2008)
  70. ^ Chen NH, Zhong JJ. p53 is important for the anti-invasion of ganoderic acid T in human carcinoma cells. Phytomedicine. (2011)
  71. ^ a b Weng CJ, et al. Lucidenic acid inhibits PMA-induced invasion of human hepatoma cells through inactivating MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathway and reducing binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Carcinogenesis. (2008)
  72. ^ a b c Jiang J, et al. Ganoderic acids suppress growth and invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by modulating AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling. Int J Mol Med. (2008)
  73. ^ a b Yuen JW, Gohel MD, Ng CF. The differential immunological activities of Ganoderma lucidum on human pre-cancerous uroepithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  74. ^ a b Adamec J, et al. Development of a new method for improved identification and relative quantification of unknown metabolites in complex samples: determination of a triterpenoid metabolic fingerprint for the in situ characterization of Ganoderma bioactive compounds. J Sep Sci. (2009)
  75. ^ a b Wang X, et al. HPLC method for the determination and pharmacokinetic studies of four triterpenoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Ganoderma lucidum extract. Biomed Chromatogr. (2007)
  76. ^ Lee I, et al. Selective cholinesterase inhibition by lanostane triterpenes from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2011)
  77. ^ Zhang XQ, et al. Triterpenoids with neurotrophic activity from Ganoderma lucidum. Nat Prod Res. (2011)
  78. ^ Cheung WM, et al. Ganoderma extract activates MAP kinases and induces the neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. FEBS Lett. (2000)
  79. ^ Aguirre Moreno AC, et al. Ganoderma lucidum reduces kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal damage via inflammatory cytokines and glial fibrillary acid protein expression. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. (2011)
  80. ^ Ding H, et al. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects dopaminergic neurons through inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators by activated microglia. Sheng Li Xue Bao. (2010)
  81. ^ Zhang R, et al. Ganoderma lucidum Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration through Inhibition of Microglial Activation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2011)
  82. ^ Chronic fatigue syndrome or neurasthenia?.
  83. ^ Epidemiological investigation on mental disorders in 7 areas of China.
  84. ^ Hickie I, et al. Neurasthenia: prevalence, disability and health care characteristics in the Australian community. Br J Psychiatry. (2002)
  85. ^ Parker G, Gladstone G, Chee KT. Depression in the planet's largest ethnic group: the Chinese. Am J Psychiatry. (2001)
  86. ^ a b c Cui XY, et al. Extract of Ganoderma lucidum prolongs sleep time in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  87. ^ a b c Chu QP, et al. Extract of Ganoderma lucidum potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via a GABAergic mechanism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (2007)
  88. ^ Effects of Ganoderma Lucidum Granules on Sedation, Hypnosis and Immune Function in Mice.
  89. ^ Honda K, Komoda Y, Inoué S. Sleep-promoting effects of Ganoderma extracts in rats: comparison between long-term and acute administrations. Tokyo Ika Shika Daigaku Iyo Kizai Kenkyusho Hokoku. (1988)
  90. ^ Su C, Shiao M, Wang C. Potentiation of ganodermic acid S on prostaglandin E(1)-induced cyclic AMP elevation in human platelets. Thromb Res. (2000)
  91. ^ Su CY, Shiao MS, Wang CT. Differential effects of ganodermic acid S on the thromboxane A2-signaling pathways in human platelets. Biochem Pharmacol. (1999)
  92. ^ Kwok Y, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the platelet and global hemostatic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-Zhi) in healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg. (2005)
  93. ^ a b Seto SW, et al. Novel hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma lucidum water-extract in obese/diabetic (+db/+db) mice. Phytomedicine. (2009)
  94. ^ a b Berger A, et al. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs. Lipids Health Dis. (2004)
  95. ^ Hajjaj H, et al. Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Appl Environ Microbiol. (2005)
  96. ^ Komoda Y, et al. Ganoderic acid and its derivatives as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1989)
  97. ^ Kim SD. Isolation and structure determination of a cholesterol esterase inhibitor from Ganoderma lucidum. J Microbiol Biotechnol. (2010)
  98. ^ Huang Y, Hui DY. Metabolic fate of pancreas-derived cholesterol esterase in intestine: an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells. J Lipid Res. (1990)
  99. ^ Krause BR, et al. Lipid-lowering effects of WAY-121,898, an inhibitor of pancreatic cholesteryl ester hydrolase. Lipids. (1998)
  100. ^ a b Zheng J, et al. Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides Exert Anti-hyperglycemic Effect on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats through Affecting β-cells. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. (2012)
  101. ^ a b Teng BS, et al. Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of a proteoglycan from ganoderma lucidum on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2012)
  102. ^ a b Li F, Zhang Y, Zhong Z. Antihyperglycemic effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Int J Mol Sci. (2011)
  103. ^ a b c d Hsu HY1, et al. Reishi Protein LZ-8 Induces FOXP3(+) Treg Expansion via a CD45-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Alleviates Acute Intestinal Inflammation in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2013)
  104. ^ a b c Hsu HY1, et al. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells. J Cell Physiol. (2008)
  105. ^ Yeh CH1, et al. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes. J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  106. ^ Al-Mehdi AB, et al. Intravascular origin of metastasis from the proliferation of endothelium-attached tumor cells: a new model for metastasis. Nat Med. (2000)
  107. ^ Fidler IJ. Metastasis: guantitative analysis of distribution and fate of tumor embolilabeled with 125 I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. J Natl Cancer Inst. (1970)
  108. ^ Gorelik E, et al. Role of NK cells in the control of metastatic spread and growth of tumor cells in mice. Int J Cancer. (1982)
  109. ^ Hanna N. The role of natural killer cells in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. Biochim Biophys Acta. (1985)
  110. ^ a b Chen X, et al. Monitoring of immune responses to a herbal immuno-modulator in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Int Immunopharmacol. (2006)
  111. ^ a b Gao Y, et al. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. (2003)
  112. ^ Huang SQ, Ning ZX. Extraction of polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum and its immune enhancement activity. Int J Biol Macromol. (2010)
  113. ^ a b Wang G, et al. Enhancement of IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression and NK cells activity involved in the anti-tumor effect of ganoderic acid Me in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. (2007)
  114. ^ Atagi S, et al. Inhibition by fibrin coagulation of lung cancer cell destruction by human interleukin-2-activated killer cells. Jpn J Cancer Res. (1992)
  115. ^ a b c Zheng S, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides eradicates the blocking effect of fibrinogen on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma cells. Oncol Lett. (2012)
  116. ^ Sun LX, et al. Enhanced MHC class I and costimulatory molecules on B16F10 cells by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. J Drug Target. (2012)
  117. ^ a b Tang QJ, et al. Activation of mouse macrophages by the alkali-extracted polysaccharide from spore of Ganoderma lucidum. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. (2004)
  118. ^ Study of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide on Effects of Cellular Immune Function in mice.
  119. ^ a b c Ji Z, et al. Immunomodulation of bone marrow macrophages by GLIS, a proteoglycan fraction from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. Int J Med Mushrooms. (2011)
  120. ^ Zhang Q, Lin Z. Study on antitumor activity and mechanism of Ganoderma polysaccharides B. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (1999)
  121. ^ Berovic M, et al. Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides. J Biotechnol. (2003)
  122. ^ Batbayar S, Kim MJ, Kim HW. Medicinal mushroom Lingzhi or Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst., beta-glucan induces Toll-like receptors and fails to induce inflammatory cytokines in NF-kappaB inhibitor-treated macrophages. Int J Med Mushrooms. (2011)
  123. ^ The effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide (GLPP) on the nitric oxide production in mice peritoneal macrophages.
  124. ^ Effect of Ganoderma polysaccharides on inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol in murine peritoneal macrophages.
  125. ^ Effect of ganoderma polysacchrides on PKC activity in murine peritoneal macrophages.
  126. ^ You YH, Lin ZB. Protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide on injury of macrophages induced by reactive oxygen species. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2002)
  127. ^ a b c d e f Yoshida H, et al. Preferential induction of Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo by Fucogalactan from Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2012)
  128. ^ Cao LZ, Lin ZB. Regulation on maturation and function of dendritic cells by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Immunol Lett. (2002)
  129. ^ Cao LZ, Lin ZB. Regulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes induced by dendritic cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2003)
  130. ^ Lin YL, et al. An immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. J Leukoc Biol. (2009)
  131. ^ Harrington LE, et al. Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages. Nat Immunol. (2005)
  132. ^ Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 in innate immunity against fungi.
  133. ^ Sakaguchi S. Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self. Nat Immunol. (2005)
  134. ^ Levine BD, Stray-Gundersen J. "Living high-training low": effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance. J Appl Physiol. (1997)
  135. ^ Shephard RJ. Immune changes induced by exercise in an adverse environment. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. (1998)
  136. ^ Zhang Y, et al. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum capsules on T lymphocyte subsets in football players on "living high-training low". Br J Sports Med. (2008)
  137. ^ Wang YY, et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and antitumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: functional and proteomic analyses of a fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction responsible for the activities. Bioorg Med Chem. (2002)
  138. ^ Zhang J, et al. Activation of B lymphocytes by GLIS, a bioactive proteoglycan from Ganoderma lucidum. Life Sci. (2002)
  139. ^ a b c d Lin KI, et al. Reishi polysaccharides induce immunoglobulin production through the TLR4/TLR2-mediated induction of transcription factor Blimp-1. J Biol Chem. (2006)
  140. ^ a b c d Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors. Nature. (2005)
  141. ^ Jung K, Kim IH, Han D. Effect of medicinal plant extracts on forced swimming capacity in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. (2004)
  142. ^ Fujita R, et al. Anti-androgenic activities of Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol. (2005)
  143. ^ The effect of strain, growth stage, and cultivating condition of Ganoderma lucidum on 5α-reductase inhibition.
  144. ^ Liu J, et al. Anti-androgen effects of extracts and compounds from Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Biodivers. (2009)
  145. ^ a b Liu J, et al. The anti-androgen effect of ganoderol B isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorg Med Chem. (2007)
  146. ^ a b c Liu J, et al. Ganoderic acid DM: anti-androgenic osteoclastogenesis inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2009)
  147. ^ a b c d Nahata A, Dixit VK. Ganoderma lucidum is an inhibitor of testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Andrologia. (2012)
  148. ^ a b Noguchi M, et al. Randomized clinical trial of an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Asian J Androl. (2008)
  149. ^ a b Jiang J, Slivova V, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling. Int J Oncol. (2006)
  150. ^ Fatmawati S, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Ganoderol B: a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. Phytomedicine. (2011)
  151. ^ Does aldose reductase have a role in the development of the ocular complications of diabetes?.
  152. ^ a b Fatmawati S, et al. The inhibitory effect on aldose reductase by an extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Phytother Res. (2009)
  153. ^ Hikino H, et al. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of ganoderans A and B, glycans of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med. (1985)
  154. ^ Hikino H, et al. Mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of ganoderan B: a glycan of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med. (1989)
  155. ^ Glycan structures of ganoderans b and c, hypoglycemic glycans of ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies.
  156. ^ Zhang HN, Lin ZB. Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2004)
  157. ^ Yang Q, et al. HPLC analysis of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and its effect on antioxidant enzymes activity and Bax, Bcl-2 expression. Int J Biol Macromol. (2010)
  158. ^ a b Zhang HN, et al. In vitro and in vivo protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on alloxan-induced pancreatic islets damage. Life Sci. (2003)
  159. ^ a b c d Teng BS, et al. A protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity inhibitor from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst and its hypoglycemic potency on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice. J Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  160. ^ a b Wang CD, et al. Effect of a novel proteoglycan PTP1B inhibitor from Ganoderma lucidum on the amelioration of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in db/db mice. Br J Nutr. (2012)
  161. ^ Thyagarajan-Sahu A, Lane B, Sliva D. ReishiMax, mushroom based dietary supplement, inhibits adipocyte differentiation, stimulates glucose uptake and activates AMPK. BMC Complement Altern Med. (2011)
  162. ^ Xue H, et al. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on hemodynamic and antioxidation in T2DM rats. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. (2010)
  163. ^ a b Grienke U, et al. Pharmacophore-based discovery of FXR-agonists. Part II: identification of bioactive triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorg Med Chem. (2011)
  164. ^ Pellicciari R, Costantino G, Fiorucci S. Farnesoid X receptor: from structure to potential clinical applications. J Med Chem. (2005)
  165. ^ Chu TT, et al. Study of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trial. Br J Nutr. (2012)
  166. ^ A Phase I/II Study of Ling Zhi Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus.
  167. ^ a b Tie L, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide accelerates refractory wound healing by inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress in type 1 diabetes. Cell Physiol Biochem. (2012)
  168. ^ He CY, et al. Effect of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice. J Asian Nat Prod Res. (2006)
  169. ^ Kino K, et al. An immunomodulating protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) prevents insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. Diabetologia. (1990)
  170. ^ Jin H, et al. Protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore on cadmium hepatotoxicity in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. (2012)
  171. ^ Shi Y, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum peptides against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. (2008)
  172. ^ Sudheesh NP, et al. Ganoderma lucidum protects liver mitochondrial oxidative stress and improves the activity of electron transport chain in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Hepatol Res. (2012)
  173. ^ Lakshmi B, et al. Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum and its effect on hepatic damage caused by benzo{a}pyrene. J Ethnopharmacol. (2006)
  174. ^ Zhang GL, et al. Hepatoprotective role of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against BCG-induced immune liver injury in mice. World J Gastroenterol. (2002)
  175. ^ Aydin S, et al. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on obstructive jaundice-induced oxidative stress. Asian J Surg. (2010)
  176. ^ Wu YW, Fang HL, Lin WC. Post-treatment of Ganoderma lucidum reduced liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide in mice. Phytother Res. (2010)
  177. ^ a b c Weng CJ, et al. Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models. J Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  178. ^ a b Liu YW, et al. Evaluation of antiproliferative activities and action mechanisms of extracts from two species of Ganoderma on tumor cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  179. ^ Li YQ, Wang SF. Anti-hepatitis B activities of ganoderic acid from Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnol Lett. (2006)
  180. ^ Li Y, et al. Anti-hepatitis activities in the broth of Ganoderma lucidum supplemented with a Chinese herbal medicine. Am J Chin Med. (2006)
  181. ^ A Phase I/II Study of a Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Ling Zhi, Reishi Mushroom) Extract in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis В.
  182. ^ Quantitative determination of the representative triterpenoids in the extracts of Ganoderma lucidum with different growth stages using high-performance liquid chromatography for evaluation of their 5α-reductase inhibitory properties.
  183. ^ Bao PP, et al. Ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum Use after Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Quality of Life: A Report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. PLoS One. (2012)
  184. ^ Global Marketing of Medicinal Ling Zhi Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Products and Safety Concerns.
  185. ^ a b Tomasi S, et al. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts from Basidiomycete mushrooms on murine cancer cell lines. Pharmazie. (2004)
  186. ^ Kim KC, et al. Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells by the Ganoderma lucidum and Duchesnea chrysantha extracts. Cancer Lett. (2007)
  187. ^ a b Müller CI, et al. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Leuk Res. (2006)
  188. ^ a b Shang D, et al. Preparation, characterization, and antiproliferative activities of the Se-containing polysaccharide SeGLP-2B-1 from Se-enriched Ganoderma lucidum. J Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  189. ^ Min BS, et al. Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against meth-A and LLC tumor cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2000)
  190. ^ a b c Tang W, et al. Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Life Sci. (2006)
  191. ^ Cao QZ, Lin ZB. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell. Life Sci. (2006)
  192. ^ Cao QZ, Lin SQ, Wang SZ. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide on invasion of human lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. (2007)
  193. ^ Sadava D, et al. Effect of Ganoderma on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. (2009)
  194. ^ a b Liu X, et al. Antitumor activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Cancer Lett. (2002)
  195. ^ a b Gao JJ, et al. New triterpene aldehydes, lucialdehydes A-C, from Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2002)
  196. ^ a b Lin SB, et al. Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest. Life Sci. (2003)
  197. ^ Ganoderma lucidum inhibits tumour cell proliferation and induces tumour cell death.
  198. ^ Tumour cell adhesion and integrin expression affected by Ganoderma lucidum.
  199. ^ Jiang J, et al. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells PC-3. Int J Oncol. (2004)
  200. ^ a b Evans S, et al. The effect of a novel botanical agent TBS-101 on invasive prostate cancer in animal models. Anticancer Res. (2009)
  201. ^ Lu QY, et al. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth and induce actin polymerization in bladder cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Lett. (2004)
  202. ^ Yuen JW, Gohel MD. The dual roles of Ganoderma antioxidants on urothelial cell DNA under carcinogenic attack. J Ethnopharmacol. (2008)
  203. ^ Hong KJ, et al. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on apoptotic and anti-inflammatory function in HT-29 human colonic carcinoma cells. Phytother Res. (2004)
  204. ^ Xie JT, et al. Ganoderma lucidum extract inhibits proliferation of SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells. Exp Oncol. (2006)
  205. ^ Miyazaki T, Nishijima M. Studies on fungal polysaccharides. XXVII. Structural examination of a water-soluble, antitumor polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1981)
  206. ^ Studies on Antineoplastic Components of Korean Basidiomycetes Mycelial Culture and an Antineoplastic Component of Ganoderma lucidum.
  207. ^ Anti-androgenic activities of the triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma lucidum.
  208. ^ Yun TK. Update from Asia. Asian studies on cancer chemoprevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (1999)
  209. ^ Kimura Y, Taniguchi M, Baba K. Antitumor and antimetastatic effects on liver of triterpenoid fractions of Ganoderma lucidum: mechanism of action and isolation of an active substance. Anticancer Res. (2002)
  210. ^ Antitumour activity of Ganoderma lucidum, an edible mushroom, on intraperitoneally implanted lewis lung carcinoma in synergenic mice.
  211. ^ Lu H, et al. Prevention of the development of preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci, by a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia in male F344 rats. Oncol Rep. (2001)
  212. ^ Lu H, et al. A water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia suppresses azoxymethane-induction of colon cancers in male F344 rats. Oncol Rep. (2003)
  213. ^ Chen WY, et al. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells. Bioorg Med Chem. (2010)
  214. ^ Cao QZ, Lin ZB. Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2004)
  215. ^ Miura T, et al. Isoflavone aglycon produced by culture of soybean extracts with basidiomycetes and its anti-angiogenic activity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2002)
  216. ^ a b Oka S, et al. A water-soluble extract from culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia suppresses the development of colorectal adenomas. Hiroshima J Med Sci. (2010)
  217. ^ A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Polysaccharides (Ganopoly®) in Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer.
  218. ^ Chien CC, et al. Effects on tyrosinase activity by the extracts of Ganoderma lucidum and related mushrooms. Mycopathologia. (2008)
  219. ^ Ghafar MA, et al. Regression of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. (2002)
  220. ^ a b deVere White RW, et al. Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of prostate cancer. Urology. (2004)
  221. ^ Yoon SY, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some antibiotics. Arch Pharm Res. (1994)
  222. ^ a b Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF. Ganoderma lucidum ("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. Br J Nutr. (2004)
  223. ^ a b c Wanmuang H, et al. Fatal fulminant hepatitis associated with Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) mushroom powder. J Med Assoc Thai. (2007)
  224. ^ a b Yuen MF, et al. Hepatotoxicity due to a formulation of Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi). J Hepatol. (2004)
  225. Futrakul N, et al. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses endothelial cell cytotoxicity and proteinuria in persistent proteinuric focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) nephrosis. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. (2004)
  226. Wicks SM, et al. Safety and tolerability of Ganoderma lucidum in healthy subjects: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Chin Med. (2007)
  227. Noguchi M, et al. Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study. Asian J Androl. (2008)