Quick Navigation

Fat Loss

These supplements are used to reduce body fat mass and may act through a variety of mechanisms, but most are ineffective, insufficiently researched, or likely to be harmful.

Our evidence-based analysis on fat loss features 221 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:


  1. Sullivan AC, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. II. Appetite. Lipids. (1974)
  2. Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (1998)
  3. Kim JE, et al. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Nutr J. (2011)
  4. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav. (2000)
  5. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats. Physiol Behav. (2001)
  6. Leonhardt M, Balkan B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in male rats after a period of restrictive feeding. Nutrition. (2004)
  7. Thyroid.org: Thyroid and Weight.
  8. Dale J, et al. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2001)
  9. Fox CS, et al. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample. Arch Intern Med. (2008)
  10. Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  11. Crocker MK, Kaplowitz P. Treatment of paediatric hyperthyroidism but not hypothyroidism has a significant effect on weight. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2010)
  12. Minnesota Starvation Experiment.
  13. Schwartz A, Doucet E. Relative changes in resting energy expenditure during weight loss: a systematic review. Obes Rev. (2010)
  14. Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days' duration.
  15. Nonino-Borges CB, et al. Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women. Nutrition. (2007)
  16. Sofer S, et al. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  17. Jakubowicz D, et al. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013)
  18. James D. LeCheminant, et al. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition. (2013)
  19. Keim NL, et al. Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen. J Nutr. (1997)
  20. Goel N, et al. Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms. (2009)
  21. Patton DF, Mistlberger RE.. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: neuroendocrine mechanisms. Front Neurosci.. (2013)
  22. Maersk M, et al. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  23. Tate DF, et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  24. Wang YC, et al. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. (2009)
  25. Chen L, et al. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  26. Davidson TL, Swithers SE. A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  27. Hellerstein MK. De novo lipogenesis in humans: metabolic and regulatory aspects. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  28. Hellerstein MK. No common energy currency: de novo lipogenesis as the road less traveled. Am J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  29. McDevitt RM, et al. De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  30. Schwarz JM, et al. Short-term alterations in carbohydrate energy intake in humans. Striking effects on hepatic glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and whole-body fuel selection. J Clin Invest. (1995)
  31. Vispute SS, et al. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  32. Green JS, et al. The effects of exercise training on abdominal visceral fat, body composition, and indicators of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen replacement therapy: the HERITAGE family study. Metabolism. (2004)
  33. C Verdich, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on ad libitum energy intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2001)
  34. M S Westerterp-Plantenga, et al. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. (2009)
  35. Halton TL, Hu FB. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. (2004)
  36. Tappy L. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reprod Nutr Dev. (1996)
  37. Leidy HJ, et al. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015)
  38. Wycherley TP, et al. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  39. P M Clifton, K Bastiaans, J B Keogh. High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
  40. Leo Treyzon, et al. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J. (2008)
  41. Ellen M Evans, et al. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  42. Idoia Labayen, et al. Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate-rich diets on fuel utilisation in obese women during weight loss. Forum Nutr. (2003)
  43. Noakes M, et al. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  44. Andrea R Josse, et al. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J Nutr. (2011)
  45. Melanie J Bopp, et al. Lean mass loss is associated with low protein intake during dietary-induced weight loss in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. (2008)
  46. M M Gordon, et al. Effects of dietary protein on the composition of weight loss in post-menopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. (2008)
  47. Mojtahedi MC, et al. The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2011)
  48. Jeremy P Loenneke, et al. Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  49. Jeremy P Loenneke, et al. Short report: Relationship between quality protein, lean mass and bone health. Ann Nutr Metab. (2010)
  50. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  51. Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic.
  52. Leibel RL, et al. Energy intake required to maintain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  53. Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  54. Golay A, et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
  55. Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  56. Bray GA, et al. Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2012)
  57. Keogh JB, et al. Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women. Br J Nutr. (2007)
  58. Farnsworth E, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  59. Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  60. McLaughlin T, et al. Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  61. Sargrad KR, et al. Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  62. Boden G, et al. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. (2005)
  63. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (1999)
  64. Parker B, et al. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2002)
  65. Freire R. Scientific evidence of diets for weight loss: Different macronutrient composition, intermittent fasting, and popular diets. Nutrition. (2020)
  66. Thomson RL, et al. The effect of a hypocaloric diet with and without exercise training on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, and reproductive function in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  67. Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P. Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss. Ann Nutr Metab. (2007)
  68. Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss. Lancet. (2004)
  69. Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low-energy food combining or balanced diets. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
  70. Du M, Yin J, Zhu MJ. Cellular signaling pathways regulating the initial stage of adipogenesis and marbling of skeletal muscle. Meat Sci. (2010)
  71. Frayn KN. Fat as a fuel: emerging understanding of the adipose tissue-skeletal muscle axis. Acta Physiol (Oxf). (2010)
  72. GOLDNER F Jr. A review of the transamination reaction and its relationship to acute myocardial infarction. Am Pract Dig Treat. (1957)
  73. Hirotsu K, et al. Dual substrate recognition of aminotransferases. Chem Rec. (2005)
  74. Phillips SM. The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count. Proc Nutr Soc. (2011)
  75. Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr. (2005)
  76. Nettleton JA, et al. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. (2009)
  77. Dhingra R, et al. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation. (2007)
  78. Gardener H, et al. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with an Increased Risk of Vascular Events in the Northern Manhattan Study. J Gen Intern Med. (2012)
  79. Kaplowitz GJ. An update on the dangers of soda pop. Dent Assist. (2011)
  80. Cheng R, et al. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2009)
  81. Shenkin JD, et al. Soft drink consumption and caries risk in children and adolescents. Gen Dent. (2003)
  82. Yi S, et al. Short sleep duration in association with CT-scanned abdominal fat areas: the Hitachi Health Study. Int J Obes (Lond). (2012)
  83. Park SE, et al. The association between sleep duration and general and abdominal obesity in Koreans: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 and 2005. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2009)
  84. Hairston KG, et al. Sleep duration and five-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS family study. Sleep. (2010)
  85. Watson NF, et al. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene-environment interaction. Sleep. (2012)
  86. Di Milia L, Vandelanotte C, Duncan MJ. The association between short sleep and obesity after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, work and health related factors. Sleep Med. (2013)
  87. Nedeltcheva AV, et al. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity. Ann Intern Med. (2010)
  88. Benedict C, et al. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brain's Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2012)
  89. St-Onge MP, et al. Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  90. Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Influence of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Obes Facts. (2008)
  91. Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on physiological rhythms. Rev Neurol (Paris). (2003)
  92. Lemola S, et al. Optimism and Self-Esteem Are Related to Sleep. Results from a Large Community-Based Sample. Int J Behav Med. (2012)
  93. Sio UN, Monaghan P, Ormerod T. Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: Effects of sleep on problem solving. Mem Cognit. (2012)
  94. Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  95. Choi JK, et al. Association between short sleep duration and high incidence of metabolic syndrome in midlife women. Tohoku J Exp Med. (2011)
  96. Najafian J, et al. Association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in a population-based study: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. J Res Med Sci. (2011)
  97. Cappuccio FP, et al. Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. (2010)
  98. Beihl DA, Liese AD, Haffner SM. Sleep duration as a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort. Ann Epidemiol. (2009)
  99. Chaput JP, et al. Sleep duration as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance: analyses of the Quebec Family Study. Sleep Med. (2009)
  100. Chao CY, et al. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. (2011)
  101. Broussard JL, et al. Impaired insulin signaling in human adipocytes after experimental sleep restriction: a randomized, crossover study. Ann Intern Med. (2012)
  102. Robertson MD, et al. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men. Metabolism. (2013)
  103. Impact of Five Nights of Sleep Restriction on Glucose Metabolism, Leptin and Testosterone in Young Adult Men.
  104. Buxton OM, et al. Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes. (2010)
  105. Donga E, et al. A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  106. Penev PD. Association between sleep and morning testosterone levels in older men. Sleep. (2007)
  107. Luboshitzky R, Shen-Orr Z, Herer P. Middle-aged men secrete less testosterone at night than young healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2003)
  108. Randler C, et al. Chronotype but not sleep length is related to salivary testosterone in young adult men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (2012)
  109. Validation of the full and reduced Composite Scale of Morningness.
  110. An actigraphic validation study of seven morningness-eveningness inventories.
  111. Roenneberg T, et al. A marker for the end of adolescence. Curr Biol. (2004)
  112. Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA. (2011)
  113. Cortés-Gallegos V, et al. Sleep deprivation reduces circulating androgens in healthy men. Arch Androl. (1983)
  114. González-Santos MR, et al. Sleep deprivation and adaptive hormonal responses of healthy men. Arch Androl. (1989)
  115. Cote KA, et al. Sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression and testosterone in men. Biol Psychol. (2013)
  116. Leproult R, et al. Sleep loss results in an elevation of cortisol levels the next evening. Sleep. (1997)
  117. Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Hohagen F. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (2004)
  118. Wu H, et al. Effects of sleep restriction periods on serum cortisol levels in healthy men. Brain Res Bull. (2008)
  119. Vgontzas AN, et al. Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1999)
  120. Caine-Bish N, et al. The effect of cold exposure on the hormonal and metabolic responses to sleep deprivation. Wilderness Environ Med. (2005)
  121. Opstad PK, et al. The thyroid function in young men during prolonged exercise and the effect of energy and sleep deprivation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1984)
  122. Sadamatsu M, et al. The 24-hour rhythms in plasma growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone: effect of sleep deprivation. J Neuroendocrinol. (1995)
  123. Klingenberg L, et al. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  124. Koban M, Swinson KL. Chronic REM-sleep deprivation of rats elevates metabolic rate and increases UCP1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2005)
  125. Rechtschaffen A, Bergmann BM. Sleep deprivation in the rat: an update of the 1989 paper. Sleep. (2002)
  126. Takahashi Y, Kipnis DM, Daughaday WH. Growth hormone secretion during sleep. J Clin Invest. (1968)
  127. Sassin JF, et al. Human growth hormone release: relation to slow-wave sleep and sleep-walking cycles. Science. (1969)
  128. Gronfier C, et al. A quantitative evaluation of the relationships between growth hormone secretion and delta wave electroencephalographic activity during normal sleep and after enrichment in delta waves. Sleep. (1996)
  129. Van Cauter E, et al. A quantitative estimation of growth hormone secretion in normal man: reproducibility and relation to sleep and time of day. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1992)
  130. Obál F Jr, Krueger JM. The somatotropic axis and sleep. Rev Neurol (Paris). (2001)
  131. Saini J, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Effects on growth hormone, insulin and glucose profiles in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Horm Metab Res. (1993)
  132. Brandenberger G, Weibel L. The 24-h growth hormone rhythm in men: sleep and circadian influences questioned. J Sleep Res. (2004)
  133. Ho KY, et al. Effects of sex and age on the 24-hour profile of growth hormone secretion in man: importance of endogenous estradiol concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1987)
  134. Brandenberger G, et al. Effect of sleep deprivation on overall 24 h growth-hormone secretion. Lancet. (2000)
  135. Spiegel K, et al. Adaptation of the 24-h growth hormone profile to a state of sleep debt. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2000)
  136. Grossman R. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology. Am J Clin Dermatol. (2005)
  137. Uhoda I, et al. Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel. Skin Res Technol. (2002)
  138. Tadini KA, Campos PM. In vivo skin effects of a dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) based formulation. Pharmazie. (2009)
  139. Helander EE, Wansink B, Chieh A. Weight Gain over the Holidays in Three Countries. N Engl J Med. (2016)
  140. Díaz-Zavala RG, et al. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review. J Obes. (2017)
  141. Hull HR, Hester CN, Fields DA. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2006)
  142. Schoeller DA. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight. Physiol Behav. (2014)
  143. Stevenson JL, et al. Effects of exercise during the holiday season on changes in body weight, body composition and blood pressure. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  144. Cook CM, et al. Relation between holiday weight gain and total energy expenditure among 40- to 69-y-old men and women (OPEN study). Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  145. Yanovski JA, et al. A prospective study of holiday weight gain. N Engl J Med. (2000)
  146. Rössner SM, Hansen JV, Rössner S. New Year's resolutions to lose weight--dreams and reality. Obes Facts. (2011)
  147. Ford ES, Dietz WH. Trends in energy intake among adults in the United States: findings from NHANES. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  148. Briefel RR, et al. Dietary methods research in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: underreporting of energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. (1997)
  149. Apolzan JW, et al. Short-term overeating results in incomplete energy intake compensation regardless of energy density or macronutrient composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2014)
  150. McKiernan F, Hollis JH, Mattes RD. Short-term dietary compensation in free-living adults. Physiol Behav. (2008)
  151. Phelan S, et al. Holiday weight management by successful weight losers and normal weight individuals. J Consult Clin Psychol. (2008)
  152. Ingels JS, et al. The Effect of Adherence to Dietary Tracking on Weight Loss: Using HLM to Model Weight Loss over Time. Journal of Diabetes Research. (2017)
  153. Baker RC, Kirschenbaum DS. Weight control during the holidays: highly consistent self-monitoring as a potentially useful coping mechanism. Health Psychol. (1998)
  154. Boutelle KN, et al. How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high risk holiday season? By self-monitoring very consistently. Health Psychol. (1999)
  155. de Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review. Obes Res. (1997)
  156. Westerterp KR. Diet induced thermogenesis. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2004)
  157. Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Proteins and satiety: implications for weight management. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2008)
  158. Veldhorst M, et al. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiol Behav. (2008)
  159. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Sex differences in energy homeostatis following a diet relatively high in protein exchanged with carbohydrate, assessed in a respiration chamber in humans. Physiol Behav. (2009)
  160. Lejeune MP, et al. Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, 24-h satiety, and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein diet and measured in a respiration chamber. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  161. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  162. Tome D. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake. Br J Nutr. (2004)
  163. Journel M, et al. Brain responses to high-protein diets. Adv Nutr. (2012)
  164. Morrison CD, Laeger T. Protein-dependent regulation of feeding and metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. (2015)
  165. Rolls BJ. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav. (2009)
  166. Tapsell LC, et al. Weight loss effects from vegetable intake: a 12-month randomised controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  167. Roe LS, Meengs JS, Rolls BJ. Salad and satiety. The effect of timing of salad consumption on meal energy intake. Appetite. (2012)
  168. Ello-Martin JA, et al. Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  169. Buckland NJ, et al. A Low Energy-Dense Diet in the Context of a Weight-Management Program Affects Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Women. J Nutr. (2018)
  170. Rolls BJ. Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management. Nutr Bull. (2017)
  171. Horton TJ, et al. Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage. Am J Clin Nutr. (1995)
  172. Acheson KJ, et al. Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man. Am J Clin Nutr. (1988)
  173. Acheson KJ, Flatt JP, Jéquier E. Glycogen synthesis versus lipogenesis after a 500 gram carbohydrate meal in man. Metabolism. (1982)
  174. Galgani J, Ravussin E. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation. Int J Obes (Lond). (2008)
  175. Schutz Y, Flatt JP, Jéquier E. Failure of dietary fat intake to promote fat oxidation: a factor favoring the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
  176. Flatt JP, et al. Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances. J Clin Invest. (1985)
  177. Abbott WG, et al. Short-term energy balance: relationship with protein, carbohydrate, and fat balances. Am J Physiol. (1988)
  178. Rising R, et al. Food intake measured by an automated food-selection system: relationship to energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  179. Frayn KN. Physiological regulation of macronutrient balance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1995)
  180. Carreiro AL, et al. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake. Annu Rev Nutr. (2016)
  181. Rolls BJ. The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat. J Nutr. (2000)
  182. Blundell JE, MacDiarmid JI. Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. J Am Diet Assoc. (1997)
  183. Shelmet JJ, et al. Ethanol causes acute inhibition of carbohydrate, fat, and protein oxidation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. (1988)
  184. Caton SJ, et al. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake. Physiol Behav. (2004)
  185. Caton SJ, Bate L, Hetherington MM. Acute effects of an alcoholic drink on food intake: aperitif versus co-ingestion. Physiol Behav. (2007)
  186. Chapman CD, et al. Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  187. Clayton DJ, et al. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2016)
  188. Clayton DJ, et al. No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males. Int J Obes (Lond). (2016)
  189. Harris L, et al. Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. (2018)
  190. Barnosky AR, et al. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings. Transl Res. (2014)
  191. WISHNOFSKY M. Caloric equivalents of gained or lost weight. Am J Clin Nutr. (1958)
  192. Swaminathan R, et al. Thermic effect of feeding carbohydrate, fat, protein and mixed meal in lean and obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
  193. Jequier E. Thermogenic responses induced by nutrients in man: their importance in energy balance regulation. Experientia Suppl. (1983)
  194. Vanltallie TB. Resistance to weight gain during overfeeding: a NEAT explanation. Nutr Rev. (2001)
  195. Kotz CM, et al. Spontaneous Physical Activity Defends Against Obesity. Curr Obes Rep. (2017)
  196. Levine JA. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2002)
  197. Cahill GF Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annu Rev Nutr. (2006)
  198. Nilsson LH. Liver glycogen content in man in the postabsorptive state. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. (1973)
  199. Molina DK, DiMaio VJ. Normal Organ Weights in Women: Part II-The Brain, Lungs, Liver, Spleen, and Kidneys. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. (2015)
  200. Molina DK, DiMaio VJ. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. (2012)
  201. Hultman E. Muscle glycogen in man determined in needle biopsy specimens: method and normal values. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. (1967)
  202. Later W, et al. Is the 1975 Reference Man still a suitable reference?. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  203. Fernández-Elías VE, et al. Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise in the heat in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2015)
  204. Knuiman P, Hopman MT, Mensink M. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2015)
  205. Murray B, Rosenbloom C. Fundamentals of glycogen metabolism for coaches and athletes. Nutr Rev. (2018)
  206. Schutz Y. Concept of fat balance in human obesity revisited with particular reference to de novo lipogenesis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  207. Rakova N, et al. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake. J Clin Invest. (2017)
  208. Kitada K, et al. High salt intake reprioritizes osmolyte and energy metabolism for body fluid conservation. J Clin Invest. (2017)
  209. Gomes MB, et al. Influence of first morning urine volume, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin on first morning urinary albumin concentration. Braz J Med Biol Res. (1997)
  210. Stasse-Wolthuis M, Katan MB, Hautvast JG. Fecal weight, transit time, and recommendations for dietary fiber intake. Am J Clin Nutr. (1978)
  211. Leaf A, Antonio J. The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition - A Narrative Review. Int J Exerc Sci. (2017)
  212. Bouchard C, et al. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med. (1990)
  213. Hall KD, et al. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. Cell Metab. (2015)
  214. Bazzano LA, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. (2014)
  215. Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2018)
  216. Sacks FM, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. (2009)
  217. Gardner CD, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. (2007)
  218. Sackner-Bernstein J, Kanter D, Kaul S. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. (2015)
  219. Johnston BC, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. (2014)
  220. Hall KD, Guo J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology. (2017)
  221. Foster-Schubert KE, et al. Effect of diet and exercise, alone or combined, on weight and body composition in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2012)