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Our evidence-based analysis on diet features 111 unique references to scientific papers.

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  1. Evaluation of Consumer Complaints Related to Aspartame Use.
  2. Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive. Environ Health Perspect. (1987)
  3. Kühn R, Graner H, Soukup P. {Experiences in the expert evaluation of nucleus pulposus prolapse}. Beitr Orthop Traumatol. (1975)
  4. Aspartame ingestion and headaches.
  5. Levy PS, Hedeker D, Sanders PG. Aspartame and headache. Neurology. (1995)
  6. Roberts HJ. Aspartame and headache. Neurology. (1995)
  7. Schiffman S. Aspartame and headache. Neurology. (1995)
  8. Newman LC, Lipton RB. Migraine MLT-down: an unusual presentation of migraine in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches. Headache. (2001)
  9. Pisarik P, Kai D. Vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings 15 years apart secondary to aspartame: two case reports. Cases J. (2009)
  10. Spiers PA, et al. Aspartame: neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic evaluation of acute and chronic effects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  11. Ford HE, et al. Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  12. Ma J, et al. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2009)
  13. Anton SD, et al. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite. (2010)
  14. Steinert RE, et al. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  15. Møller SE. Effect of aspartame and protein, administered in phenylalanine-equivalent doses, on plasma neutral amino acids, aspartate, insulin and glucose in man. Pharmacol Toxicol. (1991)
  16. Wolf-Novak LC, et al. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin. Metabolism. (1990)
  17. Horwitz DL, McLane M, Kobe P. Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. (1988)
  18. Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K. Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men. Physiol Behav. (1995)
  19. Malaisse WJ, et al. Effects of artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in rat pancreatic islets. Cell Signal. (1998)
  20. Andrew G. Renwicka,Samuel V. Molinarya. Sweet-taste receptors, low-energy sweeteners, glucose absorption and insulin release. British Journal of Nutrition. (2010)
  21. Storey ML, Forshee RA, Anderson PA. Beverage consumption in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. (2006)
  22. Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change among women. Prev Med. (1986)
  23. Fowler SP, et al. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2008)
  24. Mattes RD, Popkin BM. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  25. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-62 through 2005-2006.
  26. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings.
  27. Colditz GA, et al. Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  28. Evaluation of the influence of intense sweeteners on the short-term control of appetite and caloric intake: a psychobiological approach.
  29. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Intense sweeteners and appetite. Am J Clin Nutr. (1993)
  30. Hall WL, et al. Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety. Physiol Behav. (2003)
  31. Okuno G, et al. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (1986)
  32. Just T, et al. Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation. Appetite. (2008)
  33. Oyama Y, et al. Carrier-mediated transport systems for glucose in mucosal cells of the human oral cavity. J Pharm Sci. (1999)
  34. Carlson HE, Shah JH. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
  35. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects. Physiol Behav. (1994)
  36. Porikos KP, Booth G, Van Itallie TB. Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study. Am J Clin Nutr. (1977)
  37. Williams CL, Strobino BA, Brotanek J. Weight control among obese adolescents: a pilot study. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2007)
  38. Knopp RH, Brandt K, Arky RA. Effects of aspartame in young persons during weight reduction. J Toxicol Environ Health. (1976)
  39. Ebbeling CB, et al. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. (2006)
  40. Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. (2010)
  41. Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats. Behav Neurosci. (2008)
  42. Ambrus JL, et al. Effect of galactose and sugar substitutes on blood insulin levels in normal and obese individuals. J Med. (1976)
  43. Nonino-Borges CB, et al. Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women. Nutrition. (2007)
  44. Sofer S, et al. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  45. Jakubowicz D, et al. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013)
  46. James D. LeCheminant, et al. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition. (2013)
  47. Keim NL, et al. Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen. J Nutr. (1997)
  48. Goel N, et al. Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms. (2009)
  49. Patton DF, Mistlberger RE.. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: neuroendocrine mechanisms. Front Neurosci.. (2013)
  50. Maersk M, et al. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  51. Tate DF, et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  52. Wang YC, et al. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. (2009)
  53. Chen L, et al. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  54. Davidson TL, Swithers SE. A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  55. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  56. Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic.
  57. Leibel RL, et al. Energy intake required to maintain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  58. Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  59. Golay A, et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
  60. Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  61. Bray GA, et al. Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2012)
  62. Noakes M, et al. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  63. Keogh JB, et al. Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women. Br J Nutr. (2007)
  64. Farnsworth E, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  65. Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  66. McLaughlin T, et al. Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  67. Sargrad KR, et al. Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  68. Boden G, et al. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. (2005)
  69. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (1999)
  70. Parker B, et al. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2002)
  71. Freire R. Scientific evidence of diets for weight loss: Different macronutrient composition, intermittent fasting, and popular diets. Nutrition. (2020)
  72. Thomson RL, et al. The effect of a hypocaloric diet with and without exercise training on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, and reproductive function in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  73. Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P. Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss. Ann Nutr Metab. (2007)
  74. Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss. Lancet. (2004)
  75. Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low-energy food combining or balanced diets. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
  76. Harris RC, Söderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond). (1992)
  77. Diet and Refsum's disease. The determination of phytanic acid and phytol in certain foods and the application of this knowledge to the choice of suitable convenience foods for patients with Refsum's disease.
  78. Rawson ES, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav. (2008)
  79. Benton D, Donohoe R. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  80. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas–liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids.
  81. Nettleton JA, et al. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. (2009)
  82. Dhingra R, et al. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation. (2007)
  83. Gardener H, et al. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with an Increased Risk of Vascular Events in the Northern Manhattan Study. J Gen Intern Med. (2012)
  84. Kaplowitz GJ. An update on the dangers of soda pop. Dent Assist. (2011)
  85. Cheng R, et al. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2009)
  86. Shenkin JD, et al. Soft drink consumption and caries risk in children and adolescents. Gen Dent. (2003)
  87. Healthy Breakfast.
  88. Eat Breakfast.
  89. Breakfast – how to eat brekkie like a boss!.
  90. 8 tips for healthy eating.
  91. Uzhova I, et al. The Importance of Breakfast in Atherosclerosis Disease: Insights From the PESA Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2017)
  92. Bi H, et al. Breakfast skipping and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Public Health Nutr. (2015)
  93. Yokoyama Y, et al. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Yonago Acta Med. (2016)
  94. Purslow LR, et al. Energy intake at breakfast and weight change: prospective study of 6,764 middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol. (2008)
  95. LeCheminant GM, et al. A randomized controlled trial to study the effects of breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters. Appetite. (2017)
  96. PRISMA.
  97. Sievert K, et al. The effect of breakfast on weight loss and weight maintenance. National Institute for Health Research. (2017)
  98. Keski-Rahkonen A, et al. Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  99. Wyatt HR, et al. Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obes Res. (2002)
  100. Schusdziarra V, et al. Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake--an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories. Nutr J. (2011)
  101. Vander Wal JS, et al. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss. Int J Obes (Lond). (2008)
  102. Fallaize R, et al. Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal. Eur J Nutr. (2013)
  103. Jakubowicz D, et al. Fasting until noon triggers increased postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired insulin response after lunch and dinner in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. (2015)
  104. Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  105. Laermans J, Depoortere I. Chronobesity: role of the circadian system in the obesity epidemic. Obes Rev. (2016)
  106. Roenneberg T, Merrow M. The Circadian Clock and Human Health. Curr Biol. (2016)
  107. Boden G, et al. Evidence for a circadian rhythm of insulin secretion. Am J Physiol. (1996)
  108. Jakubowicz D, et al. Influences of Breakfast on Clock Gene Expression and Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Individuals and Individuals With Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care. (2017)
  109. Thomas EA, et al. Usual breakfast eating habits affect response to breakfast skipping in overweight women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2015)
  110. Brown AW, Bohan Brown MM, Allison DB. Belief beyond the evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  111. Galioto R, Spitznagel MB. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Adults. Adv Nutr. (2016)