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Dairy

Our evidence-based analysis on dairy features 20 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:

References

  1. ROBINSON HM. The acne problem. South Med J. (1949)
  2. Melnik BC. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. (2011)
  3. Deplewski D, Rosenfield RL. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors have different effects on sebaceous cell growth and differentiation. Endocrinology. (1999)
  4. Aizawa H, Niimura M. Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with postadolescent acne. J Dermatol. (1995)
  5. Cappel M, Mauger D, Thiboutot D. Correlation between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone and acne lesion counts in adult women. Arch Dermatol. (2005)
  6. Hoppe C, et al. High intakes of skimmed milk, but not meat, increase serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in eight-year-old boys. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  7. Salehi A, et al. The insulinogenic effect of whey protein is partially mediated by a direct effect of amino acids and GIP on β-cells. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  8. Melnik BC. FoxO1 - the key for the pathogenesis and therapy of acne. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. (2010)
  9. Kim SJ, et al. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) stimulation of pancreatic beta-cell survival is dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signalling, inactivation of the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1, and down-regulation of bax expression. J Biol Chem. (2005)
  10. Melnik BC. Is nuclear deficiency of FoxO1 due to increased growth factor/PI3K/Akt-signalling in acne vulgaris reversed by isotretinoin treatment. Br J Dermatol. (2010)
  11. Melnik BC. The role of transcription factor FoxO1 in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and the mode of isotretinoin action. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. (2010)
  12. Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Testosterone metabolism to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and synthesis of sebaceous lipids is regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand linoleic acid in human sebocytes. Br J Dermatol. (2007)
  13. Smith TM, et al. IGF-1 induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis in SEB-1 sebocytes via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Invest Dermatol. (2008)
  14. Fan W, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin signaling activates androgen signaling through direct interactions of Foxo1 with androgen receptor. J Biol Chem. (2007)
  15. Melnik B. {Acne vulgaris. Role of diet}. Hautarzt. (2010)
  16. Melnik BC, Schmitz G. Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Exp Dermatol. (2009)
  17. Bhate K, Williams HC. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol. (2012)
  18. Danby FW. Acne and milk, the diet myth, and beyond. J Am Acad Dermatol. (2005)
  19. Adebamowo CA, et al. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. (2005)
  20. Adebamowo CA, et al. Milk consumption and acne in teenaged boys. J Am Acad Dermatol. (2008)