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Coffee

Sometimes referred to as liquid gold, coffee is the most popular source of caffeine in North America (and behind only teas worldwide). Also a source of tons of nutrients, and most recently touted as a source of chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

Our evidence-based analysis on coffee features 67 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

Summary of Coffee

TL;DR - contains multiple supplements

Coffee, black gold, 'poison of choice'. Whatever you call it, it is the world's second most popular non-water beverage (second only to all forms of tea combined) and consumed world-wide.

Coffee can be seen as a nutritional product as it is a mixture of many nutriceutical compounds that all have individual purposes. Coffee can also exert effects like any supplement or drug and rival some of them in potency. It is not just an inert food product, coffee is a supplement.

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects coffee has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-d Minor - See study
An increase in adiponectin has been associated with coffee consumption
grade-d Minor - See study
An increase in HDL-C is noted with coffee ingestion
grade-d Minor - See study
A decrease in some inflammatory cytokines has been noted with coffee ingestion
grade-d Minor - See study
An increase in cholesterol has been noted in one study which attributed most of the increase to HDL
grade-d - - See study
No significant influences on insulin sensitivity with caffeinated coffee

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Frequently Asked Questions and Articles on Coffee

How much caffeine is too much?
For healthy adults, up to 400 mg/day is considered safe. Pregnant or breastfeeding women are advised to consume no more than 200 mg/day. People with cardiovascular health issues should also consider limiting their caffeine intake.
The downsides of caffeine intake
Caffeine can have a determinetal impact on your blood pressure, eye pressure, and acid reflux.
Do I need to cycle caffeine?
There are benefits associated with chronic caffeine consumption, and there are benefits associated with acute caffeine consumption that fade with tolerance; if you like the latter, cycling is mandatory. If you like the former, cycling is not needed
The science behind caffeine
Why a little bit less caffeine can make it even more powerful...
How does caffeine work in your brain?
Over the course of a day, you get sleepy as adenosine binds to A1 receptors in your brain. Caffeine blocks adenosine from binding, thus making you feel alert and also helping you feel better.

Things to Note

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Click here to see all 67 references.