Sometimes referred to as liquid gold, coffee is the most popular source of caffeine in North America (and behind only teas worldwide). Also a source of tons of nutrients, and most recently touted as a source of chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

This page features 53 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis by and verified by the Research Team. Last updated on Feb 22, 2018.

Summary of Product

TL;DR - contains multiple supplements

Coffee, black gold, 'poison of choice'. Whatever you call it, it is the world's second most popular non-water beverage (second only to all forms of tea combined) and consumed world-wide.

Coffee can be seen as a nutritional product as it is a mixture of many nutriceutical compounds that all have individual purposes. Coffee can also exert effects like any supplement or drug and rival some of them in potency. It is not just an inert food product, coffee is a supplement.

Editors' Thoughts on Coffee

Black coffee is a pretty good compound for long term health surprisingly. I mention 'black' coffee as although adding a bit of sugar and cream/milk is fine, many people put in way too much (I have worked at Tim Hortons, I know the monstrosity that is a Quad/Quad)

Kurtis Frank

Frequently Asked Questions

Questions and answers regarding Coffee

Q: The downsides of caffeine intake

A: Caffeine can have a determinetal impact on your blood pressure, eye pressure, and acid reflux.

Read full answer to "The downsides of caffeine intake"

Q: The science behind caffeine

A: Why a little bit less caffeine can make it even more powerful...

Read full answer to "The science behind caffeine"

Q: Do I need to cycle caffeine?

A: There are benefits associated with chronic caffeine consumption, and there are benefits associated with acute caffeine consumption that fade with tolerance; if you like the latter, cycling is mandatory. If you like the former, cycling is not needed

Read full answer to "Do I need to cycle caffeine?"

Q: How does caffeine work in your brain?

A: Over the course of a day, you get sleepy as adenosine binds to A1 receptors in your brain. Caffeine blocks adenosine from binding, thus making you feel alert and also helping you feel better.

Read full answer to "How does caffeine work in your brain?"

Q: Caffeine consumption: how much is safe?

A: For healthy adults, up to 400 mg/day is considered safe. Pregnant or breastfeeding women are advised to consume no more than 200 mg/day. People with cardiovascular health issues should also consider limiting their caffeine intake.

Read full answer to "Caffeine consumption: how much is safe?"

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects coffee has on your body, and how strong these effects are.

Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Adiponectin Minor - See study
An increase in adiponectin has been associated with coffee consumption
HDL-C Minor - See study
An increase in HDL-C is noted with coffee ingestion
Inflammation Minor - See study
A decrease in some inflammatory cytokines has been noted with coffee ingestion
Total Cholesterol Minor - See study
An increase in cholesterol has been noted in one study which attributed most of the increase to HDL
Insulin Sensitivity - - See study
No significant influences on insulin sensitivity with caffeinated coffee

This Product Contains

(Constituents found here[1])

  • Caffeine, sometimes at 1% total weight of coffee beans.[2]

  • Chlorogenic Acid, up to 7% total weight of coffee beans[2] but found to a higher level in Green coffee extract

  • Chlorogenic Lactone

  • Caffeic Acid

  • Nicotinic Acid

  • N-methylpyridinium compounds[3]

  • Cholinergic compounds

  • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)

  • Trigonelline, up to 1% of coffee beans by weight.[2]

  • Pyrogallol[4]

  • Catechol[4]

  • Melanodin structures, or small phenolics bound to sugars[5][6]

Beans also tend to have: 13% oil content by weight, 13% protein content by weight, 15% hemicellulose and 18% holocellulose, 2% lignan, 4% ash, 3% pectin, 7% sucrose and 1% reducing sugars.[2]

Doses of all compounds vary on bean quality, length to initiation of processing, type of processing and preparation method, and length of time processed.

Scientific Support & Reference Citations


  1. Oka K. Pharmacological bases of coffee nutrients for diabetes prevention. Yakugaku Zasshi. (2007)
  2. Ramalakshmi K, Raghavan B. Caffeine in coffee: its removal. Why and how. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (1999)
  3. Kotyczka C, et al. Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2011)
  4. Rubach M, et al. Multi-parametric approach to identify coffee components that regulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2012)
  5. Moreira AS, et al. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts. Food Funct. (2012)
  6. Fogliano V, Morales FJ. Estimation of dietary intake of melanoidins from coffee and bread. Food Funct. (2011)

Via HEM and FAQ:

  1. Kempf K, et al. Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  2. Duncan MJ, Oxford SW. The effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state and bench press performance to failure. J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  3. Childs E, de Wit H. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2006)
  4. Rogers PJ, et al. Association of the anxiogenic and alerting effects of caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 polymorphisms and habitual level of caffeine consumption. Neuropsychopharmacology. (2010)
  5. Holtzman SG. CGS 15943, a nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist: effects on locomotor activity of nontolerant and caffeine-tolerant rats. Life Sci. (1991)
  6. Barry RJ, Clarke AR, Johnstone SJ. Caffeine and opening the eyes have additive effects on resting arousal measures. Clin Neurophysiol. (2011)
  7. Haskell CF, et al. Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2005)
  8. Rogers PJ, et al. Absence of reinforcing, mood and psychomotor performance effects of caffeine in habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2003)
  9. Pontifex KJ, et al. Effects of caffeine on repeated sprint ability, reactive agility time, sleep and next day performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2010)
  10. Glaister M, et al. Caffeine and sprinting performance: dose responses and efficacy. J Strength Cond Res. (2012)
  11. Glaister M, et al. Caffeine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2008)
  12. Schneiker KT, et al. Effects of caffeine on prolonged intermittent-sprint ability in team-sport athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2006)
  13. Paton CD, Lowe T, Irvine A. Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2010)
  14. Cook C, et al. Acute caffeine ingestion increases voluntarily chosen resistance training load following limited sleep. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2012)
  15. Del Coso J, et al. Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2012)
  16. Mora-Rodríguez R, et al. Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men. PLoS One. (2012)
  17. Beaven CM, et al. Dose effect of caffeine on testosterone and cortisol responses to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2008)
  18. Astorino TA, et al. Effect of two doses of caffeine on muscular function during isokinetic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2010)
  19. Pedersen DJ, et al. High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. J Appl Physiol (1985). (2008)
  20. Kim TW, et al. Caffeine increases sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity during physical loading. J Med Food. (2011)
  21. Astrup A, et al. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  22. Acheson KJ, et al. Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling?. Am J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  23. Gonçalves LS, et al. Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation. J Appl Physiol (1985). (2017)
  24. McCusker RR, Goldberger BA, Cone EJ. Caffeine content of energy drinks, carbonated sodas, and other beverages. J Anal Toxicol. (2006)
  25. Ludwig IA, et al. Variations in caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents of coffees: what are we drinking?. Food Funct. (2014)
  26. Fox GP, et al. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans. J Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  27. Noordzij M, et al. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. (2005)
  28. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. . (1992)
  29. Juliano LM, et al. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence. Psychol Addict Behav. (2012)
  30. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Safety of caffeine. EFSA Journal. (2015)
  31. Food and Nutrition Board. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary.. The National Academies Press. (2014)
  32. Nawrot P, et al. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam. (2003)
  33. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board. Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. . (2001)
  34. Wikoff D, et al. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food Chem Toxicol. (2017)
  35. Giannelli M, et al. The effect of caffeine consumption and nausea on the risk of miscarriage. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. (2003)
  36. Morgan S, Koren G, Bozzo P. Is caffeine consumption safe during pregnancy?. Can Fam Physician. (2013)
  37. Knutti R, Rothweiler H, Schlatter C. The effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine. Arch Toxicol Suppl. (1982)
  38. Ruxton CH. The suitability of caffeinated drinks for children: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, observational studies and expert panel guidelines. J Hum Nutr Diet. (2014)
  39. Committee on Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools. Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth. The National Academies Press. (2007)
  40. Arria MA, et al. Letter to Commissioner Hamburg Re: The Use of Caffeine in Energy Drinks. . (2013)
  41. Mort JR, Kruse HR. Timing of blood pressure measurement related to caffeine consumption. Ann Pharmacother. (2008)
  42. Temple JL, et al. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review. Front Psychiatry. (2017)
  43. Yen M, Ewald MB. Toxicity of weight loss agents. J Med Toxicol. (2012)
  44. Beauchamp GA, et al. A Retrospective Study of Clinical Effects of Powdered Caffeine Exposures Reported to Three US Poison Control Centers. J Med Toxicol. (2016)
  45. Jabbar SB, Hanly MG. Fatal caffeine overdose: a case report and review of literature. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. (2013)
  46. Jones AW. Review of Caffeine-Related Fatalities along with Postmortem Blood Concentrations in 51 Poisoning Deaths. J Anal Toxicol. (2017)
  47. Desbrow B, et al. The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance. J Sports Sci. (2012)

(Common misspellings for Coffee include cofee, coffie, koffee, koffe, kofe, cofe, cofi, kofi)