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Citric Acid

Citric Acid is an intermediate in the Krebs Cycle, and technically crucial for cellular functioning and energy production. Its usage in supplements includes useful things like being bound to minerals (such as Calcium Citrate or Magnesium Citrate) to increase water solubility.

Our evidence-based analysis on citric acid features 7 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published:
Last Updated:

Summary of Citric Acid

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Citric acid is a compound that, in the body, is created for production of cellular energy via the TCA cycle. Supplementation with it has not been shown to increase energy levels as enough is made by the body.

It has an alkalinizing effect on the body when ingested and has been shown in a limited amount of studies to exert some protection against calcium loss in post-menopausal osteroporetic women.

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Things To Know & Note

Primary Function:

Also Known As

Citrate

Citric Acid is non-stimulatory.

How to Take Citric Acid

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Alkalinizing effects of Citric acid supplementation have been shown in high doses of 0.1g/kg bodyweight, which is 8.2g a day for a 180lb person.

Scientific Research on Citric Acid

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1Overview and Significance in the body

Citric acid is an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle (TCA, or Kreb's Cycle) in the mitochondria and is synthesized in the first step via the combination of oxaloacetate and Acetyl-Coa via Citrate Synthase (to produce Citrate).[1][2] It is the first step of the TCA cycle, but not the rate limiting step (which is the decarboxylation step of isocitrate dehydrogenase, or step 5).

2Citric Acid and Acidity/Alkalinity

Citric acid is commonly supplemented as an aims to reduce body acidity, it has once been hypothesized that an acidic diet leeches alkaline minerals from bone to counteract changes in body acidity, thus reducing bone mass (as most minerals deposited in bone are alkaline in nature).[3]

In regards to bone metabolism, one study found that low (0.72g) and high (2.16g) dose potassium citrate supplementation has not been shown to have a significant effect on reducing the effects of osteoporosis and the loss of bone turnover in and of itself[4] although it seems to be able to ameliorate calcium losses induced by a high sodium intake.[5] Another short-term study, using much higher doses (0.1g/kg bodyweight) found beneficial effects on bone metabolism as judged by urinary excretion.[6]

3Other effects of Citric Acid

Like ascorbic acid (vitamin C), Citric acid may increase iron bioavailability. However, it is much less potent in this regard.[7]

References

  1. ^ Srere PA. The molecular physiology of citrate. Curr Top Cell Regul. (1992)
  2. ^ Beeckmans S. Some structural and regulatory aspects of citrate synthase. Int J Biochem. (1984)
  3. ^ Wachman A, Bernstein DS. Diet and osteoporosis. Lancet. (1968)
  4. ^ Macdonald HM, et al. Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  5. ^ Potassium Citrate Prevents Increased Urine Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption Induced by a High Sodium Chloride Diet.
  6. ^ Marangella M, et al. Effects of potassium citrate supplementation on bone metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int. (2004)
  7. ^ Teucher B, Olivares M, Cori H. Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. (2004)