Introducing Evidence-based Keto: Your no-hype guide to the ketogenic diet
We've spent the past year analyzing the research on the keto diet, and have just released Evidence-based Keto.
Clocking in at over 200 pages with 500+ references, it's the unbiased guide you need to the ketogenic diet.
How to Take Beet Root
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
Beetroot tends to be dosed on the nitrate content, with around 0.1-0.2mmol/kg (6.4-12.8mg/kg) being the target for nitrate. This is about 436mg for a 150lb person, which is comparable to half a kilogram (500g) of the beetroots themselves (wet weight).
Consumption of beetroots for the nitrate content can be either via a puree or smoothie, or the beets themselves can be baked in an oven into chips. The aforementioned cooking techniques do not appear to reduce the nitrate content.
ON SALE THIS WEEK: Evidence-based Keto
Unbiased truth on keto and long-term effects on health, safety, pre-existing conditions, losing weight, and more.
Frequently Asked Questions about Beet Root
Everything you need to know about the keto diet
When we asked our users what they wanted us to cover, many of them mentioned the keto diet.
So we listened. We spent the year looking up the research on the ketogenic diet to help guide you in your journey.
With Evidence-based Keto, Examine.com gives you all the scientific research, but in understandable language with tons of informative infographics. No opinion, no bias, no conflict of interest.
If you’re interested in keto, this is a must-have unbiased source.
Scientific Research on Beet Root
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
Beetroot (of the family Chenopodiaceae), usually as juice, is one of the more common supplemental sources of dietary nitrate conferring at least 1,300mg/kg fresh weight with one review noting an average value of 1,459mg/kg fresh weight (range of 644–1,800mg/kg); up to 2500mg/kg has been reported.
It does not appear to be the largest source on a weight basis (being outperformed by leafy green vegetables such as spinach, rocket, and lettuce) although the juice may be more palatable.
Beetroot tends to contain:
Inorganic Nitrate (NO3-), as the main bioactive for cardiovascular and endurance exercise interactions
The pigment class of betalains, predominately betanin and vulgaxanthin
The pomace of beetroot also contains phenolics (45.68mg Gallic acid equivalents) and flavonoids (25.89mg Rutin equivalents) with both betanin (4.09mg/g) and vulgaxanthin (7.32mg/g).
The main bioactive in beetroot is nitrate, insofar that many studies use beetroot without nitrate as a placebo intervention and note significant difference in microcirculation and exercise performance. Betalains may also contribute to beetroot bioactivity
Plasma nitrite (NO2-) levels are also increased following nitrate consumption, with up to a 400% increased level at rest or more moderate estimates of an increase to 373+/-211nM (103% higher than placebo) following consumption of 6.2mmol nitrate for 6 days. Nitrite levels appear to be 'used up' during exercise, although following nitrate consumption a 20% decrease in nitrite seem in placebo is still 54% above baseline placebo values; higher serum nitrite levels, as seen with nitrate supplementation, has an accelerated rate of decline during exercise relative to basal nitrate concentrations (which are fairly static).
Both plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased following consumption of nitrate sources including beets. Nitrate appears to be somewhat of a chronic increase and forms a 'pool' of nitrate substrate, and nitrite also forms something similar to a pool of substrate that is used up during exercise
Nitric oxide is thought to modulate respiration due to in vitro studies suggesting it is a reversible inhibitor of cytochrome C and some animal researching showing that administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors increases oxygen consumption.
In healthy trained adults, ingestion of 0.1mmol/kg nitrate is associated with a reduced oxygen cost of exercise by 5.4% (assessed via VO2) during submaximal performance and increased energy efficiency by 7.1%; these were independent of changes in heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood lactate. There was no influence of nitrate supplementation at maximal work. Another study confirms the decrease in oxygen usage but found benefit for low (20% reduction), medium (7.1%), and high (7.2%) intensity running exercises where time to fatigue was increased 15% in high intensity running following 6.2mmol nitrate for 6 days and this is noted elsewhere where nitrate at 0.1mmol/kg (via sodium nitrate) reduced VO2 max yet did not adversely influence performance (trended nonsignificantly to increase time to exhaustion). One study has noted that muscle extraction of oxygen has been reduced 19% following supplementation of 500mL of beetroot juice (11.2+/-0.6mM nitrate).
These effects appear to occur after a single acute dose of dietary nitrate at 10mg/kg (0.16mmol/kg) reducing VO2 max by 3.8% during endurance exercise and without adversely affecting time to exhaustion (again noting an insignificant trend to improve).
Supplementation or dietary ingestion of nitrate appears to reduce oxygen cost of exercise and reduce VO2 max without affecting exercise performance; this is thought to be secondary to increasing efficiency of substrate utilization
Beetroot supplementation has been associated with a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.  Nitroglycerin, an antianginal agent used to prevent and treat acute chest pain, helps produce nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation of blood vessels and a drop in blood pressure.  Beetroot supplementation in conjunction with other blood pressure lowering agents, such as nitroglycerin, may be cautioned, to prevent a potential unsafe drop in blood pressure. There has also been mention that beetroot possibly increases blood clotting, but this has been disputed by other professionals.
A small study (n=8) of persons consuming 500mL beetroot juice for 15 days (relative to placebo, a nitrate depleted beetroot juice) has failed to significantly influence muscular power output either acutely or after 15 days; this study noted a slightly lesser usage of phosphocreatine (bioactive form of creatine) associated with maximal voluntary contractions.
There do not appear to be any significant influences of beetroot juice on acute power output
During an exercise period, in a study where plasma nitrite declined 20% during exercise in trained athletes, consumption of 490mL nitrate-rich beetroot juice prior to exercise resulted in a 52% increase in plasma nitrate (relative to their own baseline values). An increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite in those consuming beetroot juice relative to placebo during exercise trials with the most commonly ingested dosage of beetroot juice being 500mL.
Consumption of beetroot juice is associated with increased plasma nitrate and nitrate during physical exercise
In athletes subject to exercise trials, performance in a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (20m intermittent sprinting) increased by 4.2% relative to placebo following the consumption of 490mL beetroot juice; This increase in performance was not accompanied by any changes in plasma lactate, but accompanied by a reduction in glucose relative to placebo (9.6%) and a trend (P=0.08) to reduce the rise in serum potassium.
In a longer trial, 11 recreationally active persons consuming a single dose of beetroot juice (89kcal and over 500mg nitrate; prepared via 90 minutes of oven baking followed by food processing) relative to the placebo juice (cranberry) noted a trend (P=0.06) to improve time to complete a 5 kilometer run and this was independent of any significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or the rate of perceived exertion overall; the only statistical significance arose for the rate of perceived exertion in the first third of the run, and running velocity for the final stretch of the run. Overall, the 5 kilometer trial was completed 41 seconds quicker in the beetroot group (although the very limited sample size should be taken with caution) and another study using a time trial design (but for cycling) has found that acute ingestion of 500mL beetroot juice (6.2mmol nitrate) 150 minutes prior to the time trial was associated with a 2.8% improvement in the first 4km of the trial and 2.7% after all 16.1km (which was associated with improved power output but no alterations in VO2 max). 140mL beetroot juice (8.7mmol nitrate) has failed to significantly improve cycling performance in trained athletes despite increased serum nitrate.
A slight improvement in time trial performance on both running and bicycling. The studies in support of this are unanimous, but individually underpowered
For trials measuring a time to exhaustion (in which a longer time to become exhausted is indicative of enhanced physical endurance), 500mL of beetroot juice (11.2+/-0.6mM nitrate) has been shown to reduce muscle fractional oxygen extraction was reduced 19% and the time to exhaustion increased by 15.7% relative to placebo as assessed by cycle ergometer. This reduction in oxygen consumption relative to placebo has been replicated elsewhere with 0.1mmol/kg sodium nitrate (food equivalent of 100-300g beetroot) on an ergometer test and has been noted in walking and running, where the time to exhaustion in high intensity running was prolonged 15% relative to placebo.
At least one study assessing an acute dosage versus 15 days of chronic dosing has failed to find a significant difference, with both time periods of 500mL beetroot juice (5.2mmol nitrate) reducing the oxygen cost of exercise and improving performance to similar degrees. Two other studies have been conducted confirming the increase in energy efficiency (via reduction in oxygen requirement of exericse) although these two studies did not assess time to exhaustion.
In tests that measure time to exhaustion (rather than those measuring time to complete X distance), beetroot juice appears to be associated with an anti-fatigue effect and prolongation of exercise performance
Beetroot juice appears to be a commonly used dietary supplement in patients of gastrointestinal cancers, according to at least one survey conducted and tends to be associated with being an alternative medicine for cancer patients in general.
A few studies using beetroot extract have noted anti-cancer effects in cells despite a nitrate concentration, attributed to the betalain content (due to their antioxidant properties). The apoptotic effects have been noted in breast, prostatic, liver, skin, and lung cancer cells. The anticancer effects have been noted with a drinking water containing the beetroot pigmentation, and have been said to possibly be a safer option of dietary nitrate for cancer patients pending more research.
Beetroot extract appears to have anti-cancer properties in vitro despite a nitrate content, thought to be related to the betalain content; no studies currently assessing living systems
Additionally, ingestion of beetroot can cause red urine.
One study has reported a link between beetroot supplementation and postural hypotension.
- Lidder S, Webb AJ. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (2013)
- Tamme T, et al. Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population. Food Addit Contam. (2006)
- Nitrate in vegetables: toxicity, content, intake and EC regulation.
- Vulić JJ, et al. Antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial beetroot pomace. Food Funct. (2013)
- Larsen FJ, et al. Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise. Acta Physiol (Oxf). (2007)
- Wylie LJ, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2013)
- Lansley KE, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study. J Appl Physiol. (2011)
- Cleeter MW, et al. Reversible inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, by nitric oxide. Implications for neurodegenerative diseases. FEBS Lett. (1994)
- Bolaños JP, et al. Nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cultured astrocytes. J Neurochem. (1994)
- Shen W, et al. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of oxygen consumption in conscious dogs. Circ Res. (1994)
- Lacerda AC, et al. Evidence that brain nitric oxide inhibition increases metabolic cost of exercise, reducing running performance in rats. Neurosci Lett. (2006)
- Larsen FJ, et al. Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise. Free Radic Biol Med. (2010)
- Bailey SJ, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. (2009)
- Bescós R, et al. Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2011)
- Siervo M, et al. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr. (2013)
- Hobbs DA, et al. Acute ingestion of beetroot bread increases endothelium-independent vasodilation and lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy men: a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. (2013)
- Cohn JN, Loscalzo J, Franciosa JA. Nitric oxide's role in heart failure: pathophysiology and treatment. Introduction. J Card Fail. (2003)
- Tideman PA, et al. How to manage warfarin therapy. Aust Prescr. (2015)
- Vanpraag L. Warfarin and beetroot. Aust Prescr. (2015)
- Fulford J, et al. Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions. Pflugers Arch. (2013)
- Murphy M, et al. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. (2012)
- Vanhatalo A, et al. Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2010)
- Lansley KE, et al. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2011)
- Cermak NM, et al. No improvement in endurance performance after a single dose of beetroot juice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2012)
- Nikolić I, et al. Application of alternative medicine in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Vojnosanit Pregl. (2012)
- Obrist R, von Meiss M, Obrecht JP. The use of paramedical treatment methods by cancer patients. A inquiry on 101 ambulatory patients. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. (1986)
- Morant R, et al. Why do cancer patients use alternative medicine?. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. (1991)
- Georgiev VG, et al. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit dark red. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. (2010)
- Kapadia GJ, et al. Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. (2011)
- Kapadia GJ, et al. Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced UV-B promoted, NOR-1-induced TPA promoted skin carcinogenesis, and DEN-induced phenobarbital promoted liver tumors in mice by extract of beetroot. Pharmacol Res. (2003)
- Kapadia GJ, et al. Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract. Cancer Lett. (1996)
- Lechner JF, et al. Drinking water with red beetroot food color antagonizes esophageal carcinogenesis in N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-treated rats. J Med Food. (2010)
- Blázovics A, et al. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver. Acta Biol Hung. (2007)
- Webb AJ, et al. Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite. Hypertension. (2008)
- Leong P, et al. A double blind randomized placebo control crossover trial on the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on exercise tolerance in stable moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Pulm Med. (2015)
- Jacks A, et al. Raw grated beetroot linked to several outbreaks of sudden-onset gastrointestinal illness, Finland 2010. Epidemiol Infect. (2013)
- Survey of Literature Relating to Infant Methemoglobinemia Due to Nitrate-Contaminated Water.
- Cyanosis in Infants Caused by Nitrates in Well Water.
- McKnight GM, et al. Dietary nitrate in man: friend or foe. Br J Nutr. (1999)
- Chan TY. Vegetable-borne nitrate and nitrite and the risk of methaemoglobinaemia. Toxicol Lett. (2011)
- Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
- Wylie LJ, et al. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. J Appl Physiol. (2013)
- Sindler AL, et al. Nitrite supplementation reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction and large elastic artery stiffness with aging. Aging Cell. (2011)
- Ashraf R, et al. Effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Pak J Pharm Sci. (2013)
- Ried K, Toben C, Fakler P. Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. (2013)
- Hou LQ, Liu YH, Zhang YY. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2015)
- Bowtell JL, et al. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2017)
- Krikorian R, et al. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
- Rendeiro C, et al. Blueberry supplementation induces spatial memory improvements and region-specific regulation of hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression in young rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2012)
- Whyte AR, Schafer G, Williams CM. Cognitive effects following acute wild blueberry supplementation in 7- to 10-year-old children. Eur J Nutr. (2016)
- Potential health benefits of spirulina microalgae.
- Characterization of Spirulina Biomass for CELSS Diet Potential.
- Vitamin A.
- Marles RJ, et al. United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2011)
- Wu Q, et al. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview. Arch Toxicol. (2016)
- Serban MC, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. Clin Nutr. (2016)
- Kerley CP. Dietary nitrate as modulator of physical performance and cardiovascular health. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2017)