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Our evidence-based analysis on beef features 20 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. Pan A, et al. Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. (2012)
  2. Sinha R, et al. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. (2009)
  3. Higher Red Meat Intake May Be a Marker of Risk, Not a Risk Factor Itself.
  4. Aune D, et al. Meat consumption and cancer risk: a case-control study in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2009)
  5. Keszei AP, et al. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Ann Oncol. (2012)
  6. Arafa MA, et al. Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2011)
  7. Williams CD, et al. Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Cancer. (2010)
  8. Le Marchand L, et al. A case-control study of diet and colorectal cancer in a multiethnic population in Hawaii (United States): lipids and foods of animal origin. Cancer Causes Control. (1997)
  9. Le Marchand L, et al. Well-done red meat, metabolic phenotypes and colorectal cancer in Hawaii. Mutat Res. (2002)
  10. Roberts-Thomson IC, Butler WJ, Ryan P. Meat, metabolic genotypes and risk for colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. (1999)
  11. Yeh CC, et al. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase genes, meat consumption, and risk of colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. (2009)
  12. Ishibe N, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in heterocyclic amine metabolism and risk of colorectal adenomas. Pharmacogenetics. (2002)
  13. Yoshida K, et al. Association of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, GSTM1 and NAT2 gene polymorphisms with colorectal cancer and smoking. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2007)
  14. Lin J, et al. Intake of red meat and heterocyclic amines, metabolic pathway genes and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer. (2012)
  15. Lam TK, et al. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk. Cancer Res. (2009)
  16. De Stefani E, et al. Meat intake, meat mutagens and risk of lung cancer in Uruguayan men. Cancer Causes Control. (2009)
  17. Lang NP, et al. Rapid metabolic phenotypes for acetyltransferase and cytochrome P4501A2 and putative exposure to food-borne heterocyclic amines increase the risk for colorectal cancer or polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (1994)
  18. Major JM, et al. Socioeconomic deprivation impact on meat intake and mortality: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. (2011)
  19. Héroux M, et al. Dietary patterns and the risk of mortality: impact of cardiorespiratory fitness. Int J Epidemiol. (2010)
  20. Aune D, et al. Fruits, vegetables and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2009)