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Research Breakdown on Aronia melanocarpa
Aronia is a species of berry-producing plants in the Rosaceae family. The term Aronia tends to refer to multiple specific species, such as Aronia arbutifolia (known as Red Chokeberries) and Aronia Melanocarpa (Black Chokeberries); a third species (Aronia prunifolia) is sometimes considered a hybrid third species of Aronia. Usually, Aronia Melanocarpa (Black Chokeberries) are used.
Three species called 'Aronia', with Melanocarpa (Black Chokeberries) being the most commonly supplemented and commercially grown
Aronia originates from the Eastern seaboard of North America, and spread via trade in the 19th century to Russia, Europe, and specifically Germany where Aronia can be used to make fruit syrup, fruit juice, soft spreads, fruit jellies and tea (sometimes with Black Currant). Use is limited due to the sour and astringent taste of the raw berries, they are many times mixed with other fruits in commerical products. The shrubery itself grows to 2-3m tall bearing white flowers, which eventually produce small (13 mm, 0.5-2g) berries.
These berries are sometimes referred to as Chokeberries, and are quite different than the similar fruits known as Chokecherries; the latter belongs to the plant Prunus virginiana. Chokeberries are sometimes referred to as Rowanberries (a term used to refer to the species Sorbus aucuparia), but this may be a reference to hybrids of Sorbus and Aronia.
Appears to be a deep colored and edible berry with a sour taste, used in commercial products due to its nice aroma but paired with other fruits due to its sour and astringent taste
Aronia Berries tend to be 15.6-28.8% dry matter in their fresh form and quite acid with a pH ranging from 3.3-3.7. The ratio of glucose to fructose in the carbohydrate fragment appears roughly equal between cultivars (when analyzing juices without additions) while a high sorbitol content exists. Dietary fiber, in regards to the fresh weight, is low at 0.3-0.6% but contains a high anthocyanin content (due to dark pigmentation) and both dietary fat and protein are low at 0.14% and 0.70% fresh weight respectively.
Specific Nutrient constituents of Chokeberries include:
While nutient-like constituents include:
Malic Acid at 9-11mg/L juice
Citric Acid at 247-500mg/L juice and Isocitric acid at 65mg/L
Shikimic Acid at 80mg/L juice (lost in pasteurization)
Various Carotenoids (70mcg/L) and Beta-Carotene (32mcg/L) in pasteurized juice, unpasterized content unknown
Anthocyanins (307-631mg/100g fresh weight, once reported up to 1480mg/100g) with values being elevated up to a recorded 1959mg/100g after removal of water (dehydration); Anthocyanins consist of up to 25% of total phenolics, which Chokeberries appear to be second best in total content (second to Rowanberries)
Procyanidin compounds at 667mg/100g fresh weight and 3992-5182mg/100g dry weight; consisting solely of Procyanidin B chains with a 98.5:1.5 epicatechin:catechin ratio with the majority (81%) consisting of over 10 units
Overall, the Chokeberry is a low-fiber and low-protein berry with a tart sugary taste but a comparatively very high yield of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins; the molecules claimed to underlie benefits associated with Blueberries and Grape Seed Extract Chokeberries have an ORAC of 158.2-160.2 (Trolox Equivalents), and if we assume 160 as 100% (for comparative purposes) then Elderberry has 90% the potency, Rabbiteye Blueberry 77% the potency, Lowbush Blueberry 40-55% the potency, Highbush Blueberry 9-37.5% the potency, Blackberry and Black Currant at around 35% the potency, Strawberry at 9-13% the potency, Raspberry at 13%, Cranberry at 6-11% the potency, and Grapes being 2-5% the potency.
At least in vitro, appears to confer comparatively high levels of other berries and outperforming Blueberries and all other tested berries
Serum testing in this section includes measuring the blood from populations of humans, but not actively measuring oral consumption or Aronia. Cell testing is using a cell culture in vitro, but not an anti-oxidative grading scale such as ORAC or TEA (mentioned in the former section)One study measuring oxidation from activated immune cells (PMNs) noted that concentrations of 1-50% of medium as Aronia Juice was able to attenuate the oxidative effects of activated PMNs in a statistically significant but relatively weak manner; thought to be due to direct free radical scavenging. One study measuring the serum of Breast Cancer patients noted that the anti-oxidative properties of Aronia was able to normalize (reduce) levels of thiol compounds such as glutathione and homocysteine, but that this effect failed to reach statistical significance. On the topic of thiol concentrations, 300mg of Aronox (Aronia extract) failed to modify serum thiol levels in persons with high cholesterol and in healthy control.
The aforementioned remarkable effects of Aronia Melanocarpa in ORAC testing appear to be much less significant when applied to serum or cell cultures; there is benefit, but it is much less promising than the ORAC rating presumes this benefit has been replicated and the decrease in lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) quantified at 49%. Another study using this same dosing protocol noted reductions in total cholesterol (6.1%), LDL-C (7.9%), and triglycerides (13.1%). Reductions in cholesterol have been noted in Type II Diabetics given 200mL of unsweetened Aromia Melanocarpa juice for a period of 3 months, where the decrease in cholesterol reached 21% and again failed to influence healthy controls. This study also noted a reduction in triglycerides reaching 41% in diabetics, which is significantly higher than the aforementioned studies in high cholesterol and metabolic syndrome.
May have putative cholesterol lowering effects in unhealthy persons, but high variability appears to exist; no significant effects noted in otherwise healthy persons Similar results have been seen in humans with Type II Diabetes, where 200mL of sugar-free Aronia juice for 3 months is associated with a 31% reduction in fasting blood glucose (13.28+/-4.55mmol/l to 9.10+/-3.05mmol/l; n=21) and a betterment of HbA1c (20% reduction). These anti-diabetic results parallel those seen with other procyanidin rich foodssuch as Grape Seed Extract and may not be unique to Aronia, as there is a fair bit of cross-over of the contituents.
May exert putative anti-diabetic effects in Type II Diabetes, potency relative to other sources of Anthocyanins (which also share this property) is unknownCyanidin glycosides. However, the cell death induced by Aronia was necrotic rather than apoptotic (unregulated versus regulated) and was significantly outperformed by Curcumin with an IC50 value of 15mcg/mL by apoptotic pathways. These effects appeared to be secondary to pro-apoptotic modulation of pro-oxidative enzymes acting to disregulate the mitochondrial membrane, and were inhibited by incubating anti-oxidants; these oxidative effects were not noted in normal T-cells (immune cells).
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- The enigmatic chokeberry (Aronia, Rosaceae).
- Hukkanen AT, et al. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of sweet rowanberries. J Agric Food Chem. (2006)
- The Effect of Cultivar and cracking on Fruit quality in Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) and Hybrids between Chokeberry and Rowan (Sorbus).
- Chemical Components and Characteristics of Black Chokeberry.
- Wawer I, Wolniak M, Paradowska K. Solid state NMR study of dietary fiber powders from aronia, bilberry, black currant and apple. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson. (2006)
- Zheng W, Wang SY. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. J Agric Food Chem. (2003)
- Polyphenols, Anthocyanins, Ascorbic Acid, and Radical Scavenging Activity of Rubus, Ribes, and Aronia.
- Wu X, et al. Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia, and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem. (2004)
- Aronia melanocarpa phenolics and their antioxidant activity.
- Mattila P, Hellström J, Törrönen R. Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages. J Agric Food Chem. (2006)
- Moyer RA, et al. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: vaccinium, rubus, and ribes. J Agric Food Chem. (2002)
- Kalt W, et al. Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits. J Agric Food Chem. (1999)
- Ehlenfeldt MK, Prior RL. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations in fruit and leaf tissues of highbush blueberry. J Agric Food Chem. (2001)
- Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits.
- Effects of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis of neutrophils from obese and non-obese individuals.
- Kędzierska M, et al. Changes in plasma thiol levels induced by different phases of treatment in breast cancer; the role of commercial extract from black chokeberry. Mol Cell Biochem. (2012)
- Duchnowicz P, et al. In vivo influence of extract from Aronia melanocarpa on the erythrocyte membranes in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Med Sci Monit. (2012)
- Broncel M, et al. Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monit. (2010)
- Simeonov SB, et al. Effects of Aronia melanocarpa juice as part of the dietary regimen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Folia Med (Plovdiv). (2002)
- Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, et al. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (2007)
- Pinent M, et al. Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Endocrinology. (2004)
- Rugină D, et al. Antioxidant activities of chokeberry extracts and the cytotoxic action of their anthocyanin fraction on HeLa human cervical tumor cells. J Med Food. (2012)
- Abdullah Thani NA, et al. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of MMP gene expression in the U373 cell line by polyphenolics in Aronia melanocarpa and by curcumin. Oncol Rep. (2012)
- Sharif T, et al. Aronia melanocarpa juice induces a redox-sensitive p73-related caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells. PLoS One. (2012)