Phosphatidylserine

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    Last Updated: May 28, 2024

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an amino acid derivative that is fat soluble and found in high amounts in the brain, where it contributes to cognitive functioning. PS has been studied the most for cognition in adults over 50, for people with high chronic stress, and for exercise performance, but further research is needed to confirm any benefit.

    Phosphatidylserine is most often used for .

    What is phosphatidylserine?

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a major lipid of mammalian cell membranes,[1] comprising 15% of the total phospholipids in the human brain.[2] It was originally extracted from the brains of cattle in the 1990s[3] but has since been derived from soy due to safety concerns in regards to Mad Cow Disease.[4][2] PS is sometimes studied alongside the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since PS is attached to DHA molecules in the brain.[2]

    What are phosphatidylserine’s main benefits?

    Overall, the results of randomized controlled trials of phosphatidylserine (PS) have been inconsistent. Trials examining PS for cognition in adults over age 50 have somewhat consistently showed benefits at dosages of 100–300 mg per day for 2–6 months, although more research is needed to clarify these benefits.[5][4][6][7] PS supplementation also might reduce perceived stress levels in people with high chronic stress, though studies of PS for stress have serious limitations and have shown mixed results.[8][9][10] PS has also been studied in the context of physical activity, though studies have shown even less consistent results here.[11][12][13][14][15]

    What are phosphatidylserine’s main drawbacks?

    Many trials examining phosphatidylserine (PS) do not comment on adverse events.[11][12][13][14][15][8][10][16] However, in the trials that do, there does not appear to be a significantly increased risk of adverse events compared to the control group.[17][2][7][5]

    Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PS in adults over age 50, using dosages of 300–600 mg per day over periods of 3–6 months, did not note any significant increase in adverse effects in the PS groups compared to the control groups.[17][2][7][5] Similarly, a 15-week trial of PS in children with ADHD observed no major adverse events in the participants given PS, although there were some cases of gastrointestinal discomfort.[18] One of the trials in older adults noted that any PS-associated gastrointestinal discomfort may be minimized by consuming PS with food.[5]

    While several RCTs have examined PS supplementation in athletes,[11][12][13][14] they did not comment on adverse events; it's worth noting that three of these studies used high dosages of PS (600 mg or 750 mg per day) for shorter durations (7 to 10 days).[11][12][13] Likewise, of three RCTs of PS in people with chronic stress,[8][9][10] only one study commented on adverse event rates; that study, which had 60 total participants, only noted 2 adverse events among participants taking PS, compared to 9 adverse events in the participants who took a placebo.

    How does phosphatidylserine work?

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). The HPA axis is a hormonal signaling pathway which operates under a feedback loop. Perceived stress stimulates the hypothalamus to release corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which in turn stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH promotes the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands on the kidneys. Cortisol acts on multiple systems in the body in order to meet its needs in times of stress. Higher levels of cortisol decrease the production of CRF and thereby end the feedback cycle. PS may reduce ACTH and cortisol levels.[8][10]

    Supplemental PS can cross the blood-brain barrier, where it supports communication between neurons[19] and affects memory, learning and language processes.[20]

    What are other names for Phosphatidylserine

    Note that Phosphatidylserine is also known as:
    • PS
    Phosphatidylserine should not be confused with:
    • Serine
    • Phosphatidylcholine

    Dosage information

    A standard dosage of phosphatidylserine (PS) is 300 mg daily, divided into 3 doses of 100 mg each. This dosage seems to be effective as a daily preventative against cognitive decline, and 100 mg once daily may provide some degree of benefit (but might be less beneficial than 300 mg).

    Studies in children and adolescents for the purpose of attention improvement tend to use 200 mg, and a dose of 200–400 mg has been used in adult non-elderly humans with success. Animal evidence tends to use a dose correlating to 550mg as well.

    Examine Database: Phosphatidylserine

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    Frequently asked questions

    What is phosphatidylserine?

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a major lipid of mammalian cell membranes,[1] comprising 15% of the total phospholipids in the human brain.[2] It was originally extracted from the brains of cattle in the 1990s[3] but has since been derived from soy due to safety concerns in regards to Mad Cow Disease.[4][2] PS is sometimes studied alongside the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since PS is attached to DHA molecules in the brain.[2]

    What are phosphatidylserine’s main benefits?

    Overall, the results of randomized controlled trials of phosphatidylserine (PS) have been inconsistent. Trials examining PS for cognition in adults over age 50 have somewhat consistently showed benefits at dosages of 100–300 mg per day for 2–6 months, although more research is needed to clarify these benefits.[5][4][6][7] PS supplementation also might reduce perceived stress levels in people with high chronic stress, though studies of PS for stress have serious limitations and have shown mixed results.[8][9][10] PS has also been studied in the context of physical activity, though studies have shown even less consistent results here.[11][12][13][14][15]

    Does phosphatidylserine benefit cognition?

    Studies of the effects of phosphatidylserine (PS) on cognition have shown inconsistent results; some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have found improvements with supplementation in only one or two subdomains (of several) within a given cognitive assessment tool, whereas other RCTs have found improvements in the overall score of the assessment tool used. However, most RCTs to date have had the limitation of a short duration for examining cognition, usually 1 to 3 months. More, and longer, trials are needed to clarify PS’s effects on cognition.

    Several trials have been done on PS supplementation in older adults. One 1993 RCT of PS supplementation in older adults noted improvements in both cognition and withdrawal/apathy scores in the participants taking PS but no improvements in activities of daily living. While this early study is dated, it was quite large and long, with nearly 500 participants and a duration of 6 months.[7]

    Unfortunately, more recent research hasn't clarified PS's potential cognitive benefits for older adults. One 15-week RCT of PS plus omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in older adults saw improvements in the supplemented participants on one of two measures of immediate recall, but not on 8 other measures of cognition. However, a newer RCT by the same researchers, which set out to measure slightly different outcomes and used a lower dose of PS, found improvements both in two subdomains and the overall score on one set of cognitive assessments, but no improvement on another cognitive assessment.[5][4] And, although a small 2-month pilot RCT of PS supplementation (plus phosphatidic acid, a precursor of PS) in people with Alzheimer's disease found that the participants who received supplements experienced a slower decline in 7 activities of daily living than those given a placebo, the participants did not have improvements in memory, mental status, or mood.[6]

    The effects of PS supplementation on cognition have also been studied in young and middle-aged adults with no known health conditions, but much more research is needed. One small 2008 study found that 6 weeks of supplementation with 200 mg of PS did not affect any measures of cognitive function after a cognitively stressful task. However, the participants who’d taken PS did have slightly different EEG readings in the brain both before and after the test task, which might be indicative of higher levels of relaxation.[21] PS has also been studied in young and midlife adults in combination with Gingko biloba[22] and magnesium L-threonate;[20] while these studies found positive effects on memory, it's hard to say how much of the effects can be attributed to PS.

    Does phosphatidylserine mitigate the effects of stress?

    Most of the literature on PS and stress focuses on participants performing physical activity as the stressor. However, one researcher conducted three randomized controlled trials in nonathletic populations. These trials don’t provide a clear picture of benefits of PS supplementation for cortisol or perceived stress, although there is some evidence of benefit in participants with a history of high chronic stress. However, study sample characteristics, conflicts of interest, and the fact that the lead author was the same in all three studies reduce our confidence in these findings.

    The most recent of these studies, which was conducted in 2014, found no significant effects of phosphatidylserine or phosphatidic acid supplementation on levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) following a social stress challenge, although a post-hoc subgroup analysis found some benefit for chronically stressed participants taking the highest level of supplementation; further research would be needed to confirm this result.[8] A similar 2012 study, in which adult male participants supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids in addition to PS, also only found that supplementation had a significant effect in the subgroup of participants with high chronic stress levels; however, in the 2012 study, the size of the cortisol response to acute social stress in the high-chronic-stress subgroup was actually higher after 12 weeks of supplementation (though still lower than that in the low-chronic-stress subgroup). In addition, the high-chronic-stress participants who received PS reported lower perceived stress levels than the participants who received a placebo.[9] Finally, a 2004 study found that when participants who were given either a placebo or 400 mg, 600mg, 800 mg of PS daily for 3 weeks were then subjected to a social stress test, only the participants who had taken 400 mg daily had lower cortisol, ACTH, and distress scores than the placebo group.[10] However, all three of these randomized controlled trials appear to be funded by the companies which provided the supplements for these trials, reducing our confidence in the findings of these studies.

    Does phosphatidylserine benefit performance in physically active individuals?

    In glossary:randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where athletic populations are examined, PS did not consistently improve the outcomes examined.

    In an RCT examining cycling, participants in a crossover RCT took 600 mg of PS for 10 days before performing a bout of cycling beginning at a moderate intensity (65% VO2max) and ending at a high intensity (85% VO2max). Cortisol Area Under The Curve was lower after PS supplementation, but lactate, testosterone, and growth hormone levels were not different after PS supplementation compared to placebo.[11]

    PS supplementation improved cycling time to exhaustion at 85% VO2max by a surprising amount, from nearly 8 minutes to nearly 10 minutes in the PS group. The placebo group had no improvement in time to exhaustion. However, performance at lower intensities (45%–65% VO2max), serum cortisol levels, fatigue levels, tranquility levels, and fuel source utilization rates (carbohydrates versus fat) were not different between the two groups. The participants took a large dose of PS (750 mg) for 10 days before the cycling bout.[12]

    However, PS did not improve biomarkers after downhill running; a later RCT by most of the same authors, also featuring 750 mg of PS daily, explored PS supplementation for 7 days before a bout of prolonged downhill running. The run was on average 51 minutes in duration, at a steep gradient (16.5% decline), and at 8.7 kilometers per hour (or 5.4 miles per hour). Exercise like this, featuring a lot of eccentric muscle activity, is excellent at inducing muscle soreness and inflammation. However PS did not reduce muscle soreness, or biomarkers of muscle damage, inflammation, or oxidative stress, compared to placebo.[13]

    In a crossover RCT, physically active college males took 400 mg of PS for 14 days, and then performed a bout of lower body resistance training. They had no changes to mood, serum cortisol levels, or serum testosterone levels after PS supplementation, compared to placebo. In this RCT, participants were also tested on cognition, where the participants in the PS group performed better on 1 of 3 metrics related to performing simple math problems quickly, compared to placebo.[15]

    Participants taking a combined PS (400 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) supplement for 2 weeks reduced their fatigue ratings immediately after resistance training, compared to placebo. However caffeine is known to reduce fatigue ratings,[23], so it is difficult to say how much PS contributed. Outcomes that PS might have improved, such as mood and cognition, were not improved with supplementation compared to placebo.[14]

    Does phosphatidylserine benefit children with ADHD?

    While there are some mechanistic reasons to think that phosphatidylserine (PS) might benefit children with ADHD, the evidence for its effectiveness is weak.

    PS, which is an important component of cell membranes, belongs to a class of organic compounds called phospholipids. Children with ADHD may have lower serum levels of phospholipids[24] and lower levels of phospholipids in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex regions of the brain.[25] Stimulant medications to treat ADHD work on some of these regions of the brain,[26] suggesting a possible connection between phospholipids and ADHD medication and thus a possible, if tenuous, mechanism by which PS supplementation could benefit ADHD.

    However, there is little evidence that PS is actually effective for childhood ADHD. A 2021 meta-analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials found that 200–300 mg/day of PS improved the subdomain of inattention, but not the subdomain of hyperactivity-impulsivity or overall ADHD symptom scores, in children with ADHD. However, each of these 3 findings were of borderline statistical significance, and two of the three PS supplements also contained omega-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, all three of the trials were ranked as having a substantial risk of bias and being of low or very low quality.[16]

    Does phosphatidylserine mitigate the effects of stress?

    Most of the literature on PS and stress focuses on participants performing physical activity as the stressor. However, one researcher conducted three randomized controlled trials in nonathletic populations. These trials don’t provide a clear picture of benefits of PS supplementation for cortisol or perceived stress, although there is some evidence of benefit in participants with a history of high chronic stress. However, study sample characteristics, conflicts of interest, and the fact that the lead author was the same in all three studies reduce our confidence in these findings.

    The most recent of these studies, which was conducted in 2014, found no significant effects of phosphatidylserine or phosphatidic acid supplementation on levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) following a social stress challenge, although a post-hoc subgroup analysis found some benefit for chronically stressed participants taking the highest level of supplementation; further research would be needed to confirm this result.[8] A similar 2012 study, in which adult male participants supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids in addition to PS, also only found that supplementation had a significant effect in the subgroup of participants with high chronic stress levels; however, in the 2012 study, the size of the cortisol response to acute social stress in the high-chronic-stress subgroup was actually higher after 12 weeks of supplementation (though still lower than that in the low-chronic-stress subgroup). In addition, the high-chronic-stress participants who received PS reported lower perceived stress levels than the participants who received a placebo.[9] Finally, a 2004 study found that when participants who were given either a daily placebo or 400 mg, 600mg, 800 mg of PS daily for 3 weeks were then subjected to a social stress test, only those who had taken 400 mg daily had lower cortisol, ACTH, and distress scores than the placebo group.[10] However, all three of these randomized controlled trials appear to be funded by the companies which provided the supplements for these trials, reducing our confidence in the findings of these studies.

    Does phosphatidylserine benefit athletic performance in physically active individuals?

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of phosphatidylserine (PS) in athletic populations, PS did not consistently improve the outcomes examined.

    A pair of 2006 RCTs from a team of UK researchers tested PS supplementation in cycling and downhill running. The participants in the PS groups in both studies took a large dose of PS (750 mg) for 10 days before the exercise bout. In the cycling study, time to exhaustion in the PS group improved significantly compared to that of the placebo group. The increase in the PS group was dramatic — from nearly 8 minutes to nearly 10 minutes. No significant differences were found in any of the other outcomes the study measured, including lower-intensity performance, fatigue levels, and serum cortisol levels.[12] The second study didn't report on the participants' time to exhaustion, but focused on muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The study found no significant differences between the participants who received PS and those who received a placebo.[13]

    Unlike the 2006 cycling study, which found no significant difference in cortisol, a 2008 crossover study of PS supplementation and cycling found that participants' post-exercise cortisol area under the curve was lower after PS supplementation. The study found no significant difference in the other outcomes. This RCT looked at the participants' serum cortisol, lactate, testosterone and growth hormone after a bout of moderate-intensity to high-intensity cycling, conducted after 10 days of supplementation with either 600 mg of PS or a placebo.[11] Another crossover study, this one in resistance-trained young men, also found no significant differences in post-exercise mood, serum cortisol levels, or serum testosterone levels between participants who had taken 400 mg of PS for 14 days and those who had taken a placebo. However, participants in the PS group did perform better on 1 of 3 metrics related to performing simple math problems quickly.[15]

    The participants who took a combined PS (400 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) supplement for 2 weeks reduced their fatigue ratings immediately after resistance training, compared to a placebo. However, caffeine is known to reduce fatigue ratings,[23] so it is difficult to say how much PS contributed. Outcomes whose improvements could have more clearly been attributed to PS, such as mood and cognition, were not improved with supplementation compared to a placebo.[14]

    What are phosphatidylserine’s main drawbacks?

    Many trials examining phosphatidylserine (PS) do not comment on adverse events.[11][12][13][14][15][8][10][16] However, in the trials that do, there does not appear to be a significantly increased risk of adverse events compared to the control group.[17][2][7][5]

    Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PS in adults over age 50, using dosages of 300–600 mg per day over periods of 3–6 months, did not note any significant increase in adverse effects in the PS groups compared to the control groups.[17][2][7][5] Similarly, a 15-week trial of PS in children with ADHD observed no major adverse events in the participants given PS, although there were some cases of gastrointestinal discomfort.[18] One of the trials in older adults noted that any PS-associated gastrointestinal discomfort may be minimized by consuming PS with food.[5]

    While several RCTs have examined PS supplementation in athletes,[11][12][13][14] they did not comment on adverse events; it's worth noting that three of these studies used high dosages of PS (600 mg or 750 mg per day) for shorter durations (7 to 10 days).[11][12][13] Likewise, of three RCTs of PS in people with chronic stress,[8][9][10] only one study commented on adverse event rates; that study, which had 60 total participants, only noted 2 adverse events among participants taking PS, compared to 9 adverse events in the participants who took a placebo.

    How does phosphatidylserine work?

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). The HPA axis is a hormonal signaling pathway which operates under a feedback loop. Perceived stress stimulates the hypothalamus to release corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which in turn stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH promotes the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands on the kidneys. Cortisol acts on multiple systems in the body in order to meet its needs in times of stress. Higher levels of cortisol decrease the production of CRF and thereby end the feedback cycle. PS may reduce ACTH and cortisol levels.[8][10]

    Supplemental PS can cross the blood-brain barrier, where it supports communication between neurons[19] and affects memory, learning and language processes.[20]

    Update History

    References

    1. ^Mozzi R, Buratta S, Goracci GMetabolism and functions of phosphatidylserine in mammalian brain.Neurochem Res.(2003-Feb)
    2. ^Vakhapova V, Richter Y, Cohen T, Herzog Y, Korczyn ADSafety of phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids in non-demented elderly: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial followed by an open-label extension.BMC Neurol.(2011-Jun-28)
    3. ^Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DCEffects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's diseasePsychopharmacol Bull.(1992)
    4. ^Vakhapova V, Cohen T, Richter Y, Herzog Y, Kam Y, Korczyn ADPhosphatidylserine containing omega-3 Fatty acids may improve memory abilities in nondemented elderly individuals with memory complaints: results from an open-label extension study.Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord.(2014)
    5. ^Vakhapova V, Cohen T, Richter Y, Herzog Y, Korczyn ADPhosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trialDement Geriatr Cogn Disord.(2010)
    6. ^Moré MI, Freitas U, Rutenberg DPositive effects of soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine plus phosphatidic acid on memory, cognition, daily functioning, and mood in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia.Adv Ther.(2014-Dec)
    7. ^Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, Fiori MG, Crepaldi GCognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration.Aging (Milano).(1993-Apr)
    8. ^Hellhammer J, Vogt D, Franz N, Freitas U, Rutenberg DA soy-based phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) normalizes the stress reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis in chronically stressed male subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.Lipids Health Dis.(2014-Jul-31)
    9. ^Hellhammer J, Hero T, Franz N, Contreras C, Schubert MOmega-3 fatty acids administered in phosphatidylserine improved certain aspects of high chronic stress in men.Nutr Res.(2012-Apr)
    10. ^Hellhammer J, Fries E, Buss C, Engert V, Tuch A, Rutenberg D, Hellhammer DEffects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stressStress.(2004 Jun)
    11. ^Starks MA, Starks SL, Kingsley M, Purpura M, Jäger RThe effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise.J Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2008-Jul-28)
    12. ^Kingsley MI, Miller M, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Benton DEffects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active malesMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Jan)
    13. ^Kingsley MI, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Dietzig RE, Benton DPhosphatidylserine supplementation and recovery following downhill runningMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Sep)
    14. ^Wells AJ, Hoffman JR, Gonzalez AM, Stout JR, Fragala MS, Mangine GT, McCormack WP, Jajtner AR, Townsend JR, Robinson EHPhosphatidylserine and caffeine attenuate postexercise mood disturbance and perception of fatigue in humans.Nutr Res.(2013-Jun)
    15. ^Parker AG, Gordon J, Thornton A, Byars A, Lubker J, Bartlett M, Byrd M, Oliver J, Simbo S, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Kreider RBThe effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exerciseJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2011 Oct 21)
    16. ^Alisha Bruton, Joy Nauman, Douglas Hanes, Melissa Gard, Angela SendersPhosphatidylserine for the Treatment of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisJ Altern Complement Med.(2021 Feb 4)
    17. ^Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Riedel WJSafety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people.Nutr Neurosci.(2002-Oct)
    18. ^Manor I, Magen A, Keidar D, Rosen S, Tasker H, Cohen T, Richter Y, Zaaroor-Regev D, Manor Y, Weizman AThe effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension.Eur Psychiatry.(2012 Jul)
    19. ^Vance JE, Steenbergen RMetabolism and functions of phosphatidylserine.Prog Lipid Res.(2005-Jul)
    20. ^Chengxiang Zhang, Qi Hu, Shifen Li, Feifei Dai, Wen Qian, Susan Hewlings, Ting Yan, Yubang WangA Magtein®, Magnesium L-Threonate, -Based Formula Improves Brain Cognitive Functions in Healthy Chinese AdultsNutrients.(2022 Dec 8)
    21. ^Baumeister J, Barthel T, Geiss KR, Weiss MInfluence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stressNutr Neurosci.(2008 Jun)
    22. ^Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, Scholey ABAcute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserineHum Psychopharmacol.(2007 Jun)
    23. ^Nanci S Guest, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael T Nelson, Jozo Grgic, Brad J Schoenfeld, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Shawn M Arent, Jose Antonio, Jeffrey R Stout, Eric T Trexler, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Erica R Goldstein, Douglas S Kalman, Bill I CampbellInternational society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performanceJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2021 Jan 2)
    24. ^Schohraya Spahis, Michel Vanasse, Stacey A Bélanger, Parviz Ghadirian, Emilie Grenier, Emile LevyLipid profile, fatty acid composition and pro- and anti-oxidant status in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(Jul-Aug 2008)
    25. ^Jeffrey A Stanley, Heidi Kipp, Erika Greisenegger, Frank P MacMaster, K Panchalingam, Jay W Pettegrew, Matcheri S Keshavan, Oscar G BuksteinRegionally specific alterations in membrane phospholipids in children with ADHD: An in vivo 31P spectroscopy studyPsychiatry Res.(2006 Dec 1)
    26. ^Suzanne M Czerniak, Elif M Sikoglu, Jean A King, David N Kennedy, Eric Mick, Jean Frazier, Constance M MooreAreas of the brain modulated by single-dose methylphenidate treatment in youth with ADHD during task-based fMRI: a systematic reviewHarv Rev Psychiatry.(2013 May-Jun)

    Examine Database References

    1. Reaction Time - Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Ponds RW, Verhey FR, Jolles J, Riedel WJThe influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairmentNutr Neurosci.(2001)
    2. Heart Rate - Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, Nonaka C, Asano T, Miyamori TSoybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaintsJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2010 Nov)
    3. Cognition - Vakhapova V, Cohen T, Richter Y, Herzog Y, Korczyn ADPhosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trialDement Geriatr Cogn Disord.(2010)
    4. Cognitive Decline - Engel RR, Satzger W, Günther W, Kathmann N, Bove D, Gerke S, Münch U, Hippius HDouble-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer typeEur Neuropsychopharmacol.(1992 Jun)
    5. Cognitive Decline - Klinkhammer P, Szelies B, Heiss W.D.Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer's DiseaseDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders.()
    6. Cognitive Decline - Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DCEffects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's diseasePsychopharmacol Bull.(1992)
    7. Cortisol - Parker AG, Gordon J, Thornton A, Byars A, Lubker J, Bartlett M, Byrd M, Oliver J, Simbo S, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Kreider RBThe effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exerciseJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2011 Oct 21)
    8. Stress Signs and Symptoms - Baumeister J, Barthel T, Geiss KR, Weiss MInfluence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stressNutr Neurosci.(2008 Jun)
    9. Exercise-Induced Oxidation - Kingsley MI, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Dietzig RE, Benton DPhosphatidylserine supplementation and recovery following downhill runningMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Sep)
    10. Memory - Schreiber S, Kampf-Sherf O, Gorfine M, Kelly D, Oppenheim Y, Lerer BAn open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive declineIsr J Psychiatry Relat Sci.(2000)
    11. Fatigue Symptoms - Kingsley MI, Miller M, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Benton DEffects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active malesMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Jan)
    12. Golf Performance Metrics - Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Kurt-Reiner Geiss, Michael Wei, Jochen Baumeister, Francesco Amatulli, Lars Schröder, and Holger HerwegenThe effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performanceJISSN.()
    13. Blood Lactate (Exercise) - Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, Natale M, Kemali DBlunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy menEur J Clin Pharmacol.(1992)
    14. Attention - Alisha Bruton, Joy Nauman, Douglas Hanes, Melissa Gard, Angela SendersPhosphatidylserine for the Treatment of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisJ Altern Complement Med.(2021 Feb 4)