Creatine is among the most well-researched and effective supplements. It can help with exercise performance by rapidly producing energy during intense activity. Creatine may also provide cognitive benefits, but more research is needed in that area.
Creatine is most often used for
Creatine (which comes from the Greek word “kreas”, meaning “meat”) is a molecule that is produced in the body from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine. It's primarily made in the liver and (to a lesser extent) in the kidneys and pancreas. Creatine stores high-energy phosphate groups in the form of phosphocreatine. These phosphate groups are donated to ADP to regenerate it to ATP, the primary energy carrier in the body. Creatine’s role in energy production is particularly relevant under conditions of high energy demand, such as intense physical or mental activity.
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Do I need to load creatine?
What is the best form of creatine?
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What are the main dietary sources of creatine?
How much creatine do I need?
Do vegetarians get less creatine from their diet?
What are the main creatine formulations and variants?
What happens when you stop taking creatine?
Does creatine timing relative to exercise matter?
The primary benefit of creatine is an improvement in strength and power output during resistance exercise. Creatine is well-researched for this purpose, and its effects are quite notable for a supplement, both in the general population, and specifically in older adults. When used in conjunction with resistance exercise, creatine may modestly increase lean mass. In trained athletes, creatine has been reported to reduce body fat and improve some measures of anaerobic exercise performance, strength, and power output. Creatine has also been tested for effects on anaerobic running capacity in many studies, the results of which are rather mixed but generally suggest a small improvement in performance.
Although creatine has been researched far less for cognitive performance and mental health than for physical performance, it may have benefits in some contexts. Creatine appears to reduce mental fatigue in some scenarios, particularly highly stressful ones involving sleep deprivation or exercise to exhaustion. Creatine may also improve some aspects of memory, particularly for people with below-average creatine levels, such as vegetarians and older adults. There is also some preliminary evidence to suggest that creatine may reduce symptoms of depression in individuals with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. That said, more research is needed in these areas and on other cognitive measures before creatine can be said to be effective for cognitive performance or mental health.
Supplementation with creatine typically results in weight gain, partly due to an increase in total body water. The range of weight gain after a creatine loading phase tends to fall between 0.9 and 1.8 kg (1.98–3.96 lbs). This may be of particular concern to individuals competing in weight-sensitive sports.
Diarrhea can occur when too much creatine is taken at one time, in which case the doses should be spread out throughout the day and taken with meals.
Supplementation with creatine has been reported to negatively affect aerobic capacity to a small degree. It has been speculated that this potential detrimental effect may be related to increases in total body water and body weight following supplementation with creatine.
Creatine works mainly through its effects on energy metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that carries energy within cells and is the main fuel source for high-intensity exercise. When cells use ATP for energy, this molecule is converted into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Creatine exists in cells in the form of creatine phosphate (or phosphocreatine), which donates a high-energy phosphate group to ADP, thus turning this molecule back into ATP.
By increasing the overall pool of cellular phosphocreatine, supplementation with creatine can accelerate the recycling of ADP into ATP, thereby quickly replenishing cellular energy stores. This increased availability of energy can promote improvements in strength and power output. The pro-energetic properties of creatine don’t just affect skeletal muscle, but nearly all body systems, including the central nervous system (which comprises the brain and spinal cord).
- creatine monohydrate
- creatine 2-oxopropanoate
- a-methylguanidinoacetic acid
- creatinine (metabolite)
- cyclocreatine (analogue)
- creatinol O-phosphate (analogue)
There are many different forms of creatine available on the market, but creatine monohydrate is the cheapest and most effective. Another option is micronized creatine monohydrate, which dissolves in water more easily and can be more practical.
Creatine monohydrate can be supplemented through a loading protocol. To start loading, take 0.3 grams per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 5–7 days, then follow with at least 0.03 g/kg/day either for three weeks (if cycling) or indefinitely (without additional loading phases).
For a 180 lb (82 kg) person, this translates to 25 g/day during the loading phase and 2.5 g/day afterward, although many users take 5 g/day due to the low price of creatine and the possibility of experiencing increased benefits. Higher doses (up to 10 g/day) may be beneficial for people with a high amount of muscle mass and high activity levels or for those who are non-responders to the lower 5 g/day dose.
Stomach cramping can occur when creatine is supplemented without sufficient water. Diarrhea and nausea can occur when too much creatine is supplemented at once, in which case doses should be spread out over the day and taken with meals.
What is the best form of creatine?
Although several forms of creatine have been investigated, there is no indication that there is a best form. With that said, it's important to highlight that creatine monohydrate has the most evidence behind it to support its efficacy.