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Supplements that aid in circulation of the blood. This is admittedly a vague term and tends to be measured by Flow-Mediated Vasodilation, and usually supplements recommended on this page are those that would benefit Cardiovascular Health yet do not fit on either our Blood Pressure or Heart Health stack pages.A few of these compounds are involved with Nitric Oxide signalling or simply have antioxidative properties; some may have antiinflammatory properties or arterial plaque reducing properties.
200mg is the largest dose that tends to exert most benefit (higher doses might exert more benefit, but this is not studied; doses as low as 40mg can also be effective over a long period of time).
Pycnogenol appears to enhance nitric oxide bioavailability and preserve the ability of nitric oxide to vasodilate (widen the blood vessels); may simply be mediated by the antioxidant properties, but Pycnogenol is interesting in the fact that metabolites are detected in serum for up to a day after ingestion and a single morning dose seems to be all that is needed.
The benefits observed with Pycnogenol are fairly similar to those of Grape Seed Extract as they share similar Procyanidins (active ingredient)
5mg is most likely the lowest dose required, and can possibly be achieved via either a multivitamin formulation or through wine consumption (250-300mL Red Wine).
There are endogenous agents in the body, such as nitric oxide or acetylcholine, which relax blood vessels; this relaxation is hindered during some disease states such as hypertension, and resveratrol appears to preserve this responsiveness.
Higher doses are fine as well, although not needed.
Nitrates appear to have vessel widening properties (vasodilation) with preference for microcirculation, due to being reduced into nitric oxide by deoxygenated blood cells (which are more prevalent in microcirculation).
Nitrates appear to be a very potent circulation enhancer (can reduce blood pressure in a conditional manner) as well as ergogenic, and can be achieved either through their dietary sources of leafy greens and beet root or through supplementation of nitrate.
1,000mcg (1mg) of vitamin K as phylloquinone (alternatively, 1,500mcg of MK-4 or around 500mcg of MK-7) is able to benefit arterial calcification rates in the body via reducing them, which would then lead to reduced arterial stiffness and less peripheral resistance.
Although mostly preventative, vitamin K has been implicated in being therapeutic in some studies.
Garlic appears to be able to improve blood flow and circulation, which is due to a myriad of reasons actually. It may reduce arterial calcification (like a lesser form of vitamin K) whereas the bolstering of hydrogen sulfide in the body can either directly relax blood vessels or positively influence nitric oxide metabolism. Finally, there is a minor anti-platelet aggregation effect of garlic.
While dietary garlic intake (0.5-1 garlic cloves taken two to three times a day) should be sufficient, an aged garlic supplement in the aforementioned range is also adequate and higher doses (up to 7,200mg) can further increase the anti-platelet effects.