Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction Improves Metabolic Syndrome Independent Of Weight Loss
Notes for this study:
||Mean + SD. Systolic blood pressure. Baseline: 127 ± 10 Ketogenic diet: 121 ± 7 Medium carb: 123 ± 7 High carb: 123 ± 5. Diastolic blood pressure. Baseline: 86 ± 9 Ketogenic diet: 81 ±4 Medium carb: 82 ± 5 High carb: 84 ± 8
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In a randomized crossover trial, 21 obese women with metabolic syndrome were assigned to 4 weeks of an isocaloric ketogenic diet with 6% carb 20% protein, and 74% fat, a medium carbohydrate diet with 32% carb 20% protein, and 48% fat, or a high carbohydrate diet with 57% carb, 20% protein, and 23% fat. There was a 2-week run-in period, 2 weeks between each diet intervention, and all food was provided to the participants.
Funding issues for this study:
The primary outcomes were the lipid profile and plasma fatty acid levels. The ketogenic diet led to a greater reduction in triglycerides and a greater increase in HDL, and no difference in LDL, though there was a general shift towards larger LDL particles. The ketogenic diet also led to a greater reduction in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR than the other groups, and there was no notable difference in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.
Body fat wasn't notably different between groups. There was a trend towards lower liver fat in the ketogenic group. Resting energy expenditure wasn't different, and the ketogenic diet group had higher fat oxidation, lower carbohydrate oxidation, and lower respiratory exchange ratio.
Funding for this work was provided through a grant from Dairy Management Inc. and the Dutch Dairy Association to The Ohio State University.