Short-term Effects Of A Low Carbohydrate Diet On Glycaemic Variables And Cardiovascular Risk Markers In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Open-label Crossover Trial

Effect None
Values eGFR (ml/min). Mean + SD. Baseline: 84.4± 8.6 Ketogenic: 82.1± 9.8 Control: 79.4± 10.7
Trial Design Randomized trial
Trial Length 1-7 Days
Number of Subjects 10
Sex Both Genders
Body Types Obese, Overweight, Average, Underweight
Notes for this study:
In a randomized, unblinded crossover trial, 10 participants with type 2 diabetes treated with an insulin pump were assigned to a ketogenic diet with less than 50 g of carbohydrates per day, or a control diet with 250 g part day for 1 week.

The primary outcome was the change in plasma glucose. Participants on the ketogenic diet were largely in ketosis, but calories weren't strictly controlled and it was estimated that they consumed on average 160 calories more on the high-carbohydrate diet. HbA1c wasn't different on either diet, which is unsurprising given the short duration of the study. Fasting glucose was reduced on the ketogenic diet, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. For readings on the continuous glucose monitors, the average glucose levels were the same for both conditions, which is unsurprising given the use of insulin pumps. The ketogenic group spent more time in euglycemia and less time in hypoglycemia, which were both statistically significant, while they spent less time in hyperglycemia but this wasn't statistically significant. MAGE (glycemic variability) was significantly lower on the ketogenic diet, but CONGA at 60 minutes wasn't. Overall, the ketogenic group required less insulin.

Secondary outcomes can be found in the "values" boxes of their respective HEM entries.