Comparison Of Isocaloric Very Low Carbohydrate/high Saturated Fat And High Carbohydrate/low Saturated Fat Diets On Body Composition And Cardiovascular Risk
Notes for this study:
||(g/l). Mean + SE. Ketogenic: before 1.01 ± 0.05, after 0.94 ± 0.05. Low fat: before 0.97 ± 0.05, after 0.85 ± 0.05. High unsaturated fat: before 1.05 ± 0.06, after 0.93 ± 0.06
|Number of Subjects
In a randomized, controlled, unblinded trial, 83 healthy, overweight/obese participants were assigned to a ketogenic diet planned to be 4% carbohydrate, 61% fat, and 35% protein, a high unsaturated fat diet planned to be 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein, or a very low fat diet planned to be 70%carbohydrate, 10% fat, and 20% carbohydrate for 12 weeks. The diets were intended to be isocaloric. 16 participants dropped out, leaving 67 for analysis.
Although the participants in the ketogenic diet group were initially in ketosis, at the end of the 12 weeks they were no longer. Thus, for the purpose of a ketogenic diet analysis, outcomes at 8 weeks must be used.
The ketogenic diet group lost somewhat more weight than the other groups, but this wasn't from fat, but lean mass and likely water weight. The high unsaturated fatty acid diet saw the least lean mass loss, while the loss in the ketogenic and low fat groups was comparable.
The ketogenic diet group saw a greater reduction in insulin and triglycerides than the other groups, but levels were considerably higher at baseline. There was also a smaller decline in HDL, while the other groups say a greater decline in LDL.