In a randomized, unblinded, controlled trial, 44 overweight/obese participants were assigned to follow a low-calorie diet (250 calories below energy requirements, 55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15% protein) or the same low-calorie diet with 30 ml of apple cider vinegar daily for 12 weeks, divided into 15 ml servings at lunch and dinner.
The 3-day dietary recall found a somewhat higher reduction in calories in the apple cider vinegar, the difference not being statistically significant. The primary outcome was the change in body composition, and the apple cider vinegar group saw a greater reduction in body weight by about 1.7 kg on average, which was statistically significant between groups. Measures of lean body mass from bioelectric impedance analysis found that a considerable amount of that difference (1.1 kg) was lean body mass, and the rest was body fat, the change for both separately not being statistically significant. Subjective assessments of appetite decreased more in the apple cider vinegar group.
There was a statistically significant greater reduction in triglycerides and total cholesterol, with a slightly greater increase in HDL and an increase in LDL while the control group saw a reduction, the difference not being statistically significant. Neuropeptide Y was increased more in the apple cider vinegar group but the difference wasn't statistically significant.