Effects Of Regular Kefir Consumption On Gut Microbiota In Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A Parallel-Group, Randomized, Controlled Study
Notes for this study:
||TNF-alpha was significantly lower after 12 weeks of kefir (p ≤ 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the kefir and control (unfermented milk) groups (p > 0.05).
|Number of Subjects
Funding issues for this study:
In this small registered clinical trial, 12 participants with [metabolic syndrome] (MetS) took 180 mL/day kefir and 10 took unfermented milk for 12 weeks. The researchers took fecal samples before and after the intervention, used PCR to quantify the bacterial composition at the phylum level, and analysed the relative abundance of each phylum in the participants' stool.
The proportion of _Actinobacteria_ increased significantly in the kefir group (from 0.003% to 0.04%). However, this was not significantly different from the control group's increase. Notably, they did not find a statistically significant increase in the proprtion of phylum _Firmicutes_, the phylum which contains lactobacilli. The proportion of Lactobacilli did increase, but the increase was not statistically significant.
In the kefir group, fasting insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, IFN-γ, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed significant decreases, but these were not significantly different from the milk group.
No significant differences in fasting glucose, lipid profile (HDL, LDL, triglyceride levels), body weight, BMI, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were found.
The kefir in this study was made in-house from a Polish kefir starter (DC1500I) containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Lactobacillus kefir, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces unisporus.
Note: The study had a 45% dropout rate due to participant noncompliance with fecal samples or needing to take antibiotics.
"This research was funded by the Turkish Council of Higher Education."