Effects Of Kefir Or Milk Supplementation On Zonulin In Overweight Subjects
Notes for this study:
||Small (1.1/100 pts) but significant increase in positive mood after kefir supplementation, significantly different from milk control.
|Number of Subjects
After 3 weeks of 300 mL/day kefir or milk supplementation, zonulin decreased more in the kefir group than in the milk group. But the difference between the two groups wasn't statistically significant using the statistical test the authors seemed to have originally planned, but became significant only using an exploratory analysis that adjusted for a lot of other variables. This study provided no to very weak evidence of an effect; it needs to be followed up by further research.
Funding issues for this study:
The kefir used in this study was commercial kefir from Kele & Kele in Slovenia; it contained both bacteria (90% Lactobacillus, mostly Lactobacillus parakefiri, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ssp. kefirgranum) and yeasts (predominantly Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania exigua, and Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae).
"The study was co-financed by the Republic of Slovenia Ministry of Education, Science and sport and European Union from European Social Funds. This work was also supported by the Slovenian Research Agency." Note: One of the study's authors is employed by the dairy company that supplied the study's kefir. "Tinkara Vardjan is an employee of Kele & Kele. T. Vardjan is specialized in the analysis and the production of kefir from kefir grains and was invited to help with the design of the study. As she is an employee of the company whose kefir drink was used in the intervention, she was involved only in the design of the study but was then restricted from data analysis and interpretation. "