Studies related to Homocysteine and Trimethylglycine

Long-term Effect Of Betaine On Risk Factors Associated With The Metabolic Syndrome In Healthy Subjects

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 27
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
In otherwise healthy adults given betaine supplementation at 4g daily for a period of six months, there was no significant influence on organ function biomarkers (kidney and liver) nor any significant influence on lipid profiles. Homocysteine was actually not significantly affected, as the 12% difference between groups (increase in placebo, stasis in supplementation) faile to reach statistical significance.

An increase was noted in apolipoprotein A1 and PAI-1.

Betaine Supplementation And Plasma Homocysteine In Healthy Volunteers

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Cohort
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 15
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Notes for this study:
A pilot study in otherwise healthy persons given 6g of betaine supplementation (two doses of 3g) over the course of three weeks was able to reduce plasma homocysteine by around 8% relative to baseline; no control group was used in this study and baseline homocysteine was 10.9uM (reduced to 10uM)

Effect of Folic Acid and Betaine Supplementation on Flow-Mediated Dilation: A Randomized, Controlled Study in Healthy Volunteers
Effect Decrease
Trial Design doubleblind
Trial Length 16months
Number of Subjects 39
Gender mixed
Notes for this study:
Six weeks supplementation of 6g TMG in otherwise healthy adults (aged 50-70) was sufficient to lower fasting plasma homocysteine (12%) which underperformed relative to 800mcg folic acid; blood flow was unaffected. Serum B12 was not affected relative to placebo, but due to a nonsignificant drop in folate and a nonsignificant rise in the TMG group there was a difference between them.

Orally Administered Betaine Has An Acute And Dose-dependent Effect On Serum Betaine And Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations In Healthy Humans

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Cohort
Trial Length 1-7 Days
Number of Subjects 10
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44, 45-64
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
Supplementation of betaine at 3-6g was able to acutely suppress homocysteine in a dose-dependent manner in otherwise healthy adults, and this suppression lasted for the duration of the study period (24 hours after ingestion). 1g was ineffective.

Betaine Supplementation Decreases Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations But Does Not Affect Body Weight, Body Composition, Or Resting Energy Expenditure In Human Subjects

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 42
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Obese
Notes for this study:
In obese subjects given supplementation of betaine at 6g daily for 12 weeks was able to decrease homocysteine (9%) relative to placebo but the decrease in total cholesterol and LDL seen in placebo was not present in betaine intervention; there was no influence on body weight. There was no influence on plasma nor RBC folate concentrations.

The increase in ALP (liver enzyme) seen in placebo was prevented with betaine.

The Effect Of Low Doses Of Betaine On Plasma Homocysteine In Healthy Volunteers

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Cohort
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 34
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
Supplementation of betaine in otherwise healthy persons without abnormal homocysteine concentrations appears to be time dependent up until five days (where the reduction in homocysteine then plateaus) and dose dependent from 1,000mg to 6,000mg, with the lowest dose only effective in homozygotes of the T allele of MTHFR.

Folate was reduced after the first dose, but readily normalized with prolonged supplementation. Conversely, the addition of folate to betaine caused a relate spike in serum folate but also normalized after continued supplementation.

Dietary And Supplementary Betaine: Effects On Betaine And Homocysteine Concentrations In Males

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-2 Weeks
Number of Subjects 8
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
500mg of supplemental betaine appears to be able to reduce homocysteine concentrations following an L-methionine load, but is too low a dose to affect basal levels of homocysteine in otherwise healthy men.

Low Dose Betaine Supplementation Leads to Immediate and Long Term Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women
Effect Decrease
Trial Design doubleblind
Trial Length 16months
Number of Subjects 76
Gender mixed
Notes for this study:
In otherwise healthy humans given 1,500-6,000mg of betaine supplementation daily either acutely or over six weeks, the levels of homocysteine in plasma appear to be reduced with similar potency after a single dose and after six weeks in a dose-dependent manner (12-20%) and the increase in homocysteine after a methionine load is also reduced (16-35%); methoinine in plasma was increased after six weeks with the highest dose only by 60% (fasted state) and 12% (post methionine load).

Betaine Supplementation Lowers Plasma Homocysteine In Healthy Men And Women

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 36
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 30-44, 45-64, 65+
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
Supplementation of 6g betaine was able to lower plasma homocysteine, although to a level lower than 800mcg folic acid, although betaine appeared to reduce the AUC of homocysteine following methionine loading whereas folic acid was ineffective; both were effective relative to a placebo condition.

There was an increase in B12 that may have reached significance due to a decrease seen in placebo.