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Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid On Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Meta analysis
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 33
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
Investigated EPA and DHA separately, and found LDL-C to be increased by DHA rather than EPA (which was associated with a nonsignificant decline). DHA was able to increase HDL-C, whereas EPA was not.

Both fragments decreased triglycerides, although DHA trials were more potent in doing so.

Effects Of A Small Quantity Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Cardiovascular Risk Factors In NIDDM. A Randomized, Prospective, Double-blind, Controlled Study

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 20
Gender n/a
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
2.5g of fish oil (1.1g EPA and 1.5g DHA) for 6 weeks in type II diabetics noted that, relative to safflower placebo, platelet aggregation was reduced to one third when stimulated by collagen (no effect from TXA2 or ADP) and reduced both triglycerides and blood pressure but did not affect any other cardiometabolic parameter aside from total cholesterol (20mg/dL, said to be too small to matter) and HbA1c (0.56%, also very small)

A Controlled Study On The Effects Of N-3 Fatty Acids On Lipid And Glucose Metabolism In Non-insulin-dependent Diabetic Patients

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-2 Weeks
Number of Subjects 8
Gender Male
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
In a small cohort of men with diabetes (average disease length of 9.8 years) given supplemental fish oil (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA, or 1.1g EPA with 1.5g DHA) with olive oil as placebo for two weeks noted decreases in vLDL and triglycerides yet an increase in LDL-C.

Supplementation With N-3 Fatty Acids Reduces Triglycerides But Increases PAI-1 In Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 14
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
A reduction in triglycerides (27%) and vLDL were met with an increase in LDL-C (6%) and no significant influence on fasting HbA1c or glucose in type II diabetics given fish oil at 1,800mg EPA and 1,200mg DHA for 8 weeks. The activity of plasminogen inhibitor 1 increased 21%

Effect Of Fish Oil Supplementation On Serum Triglycerides, LDL Cholesterol And LDL Subfractions In Hypertriglyceridemic Adults

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 42
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
Secondary analysis from a double-blind study that investigated LDL subfragments.

Found that aside from the reduction in TGs (-26+/-4%mmol/L) LDL-C increased evenly among the more artherogenic and less artherogenic subfragments.

Fish Oil In Lupus Nephritis: Clinical Findings And Methodological Implications

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 21
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
15g of fish oil daily for one year appears to promote blood flow (less blood viscosity, more flexible red blood cells, greater bleeding time indicative of less clotting) but did not significantly reduce the renal symptoms of lupus as assessed by proteinuria.

Efficacy And Tolerability Of Adding Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acids 4 G/d To Simvastatin 40 Mg/d In Hypertriglyceridemic Patients: An 8-week, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 254
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
In hyperlipidemic adults _already on statin therapy_, the addition of 4g fish oil was able to augment the reduction of LDL-C cholesterol seen with statins while also confering a triglyceride reducing effect relative to placebo paired with the statin drug.

The Hypotriglyceridemic Effect Of Fish Oil In Adult-onset Diabetes Without Adverse Glucose Control

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 16
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
In persons with adult onset diabetes, 4.1g EPA and 1.9g DHA for 24 weeks was able to reduce triglycerides and vLDL without affecting HDL-C and total cholesterol (a slight and significant increase in LDL-C was noted) and did not alter basal glucose levels.

Prescription Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters Reduce Fasting And Postprandial Triglycerides And Modestly Reduce Pancreatic β-cell Response In Subjects With Primary Hypertriglyceridemia

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 19
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
In hyperlipidemic patients given 4g of EPA ethyl ester daily for 14 weeks, the main study parameter (increase in glucose) trended to increase but failed to reach significance. No measured parameter except triglycerides reached significance, and it was noted triglycerides were reduced by 24.4% (fasting) and 26.3% (postprandial).

Additive Benefits Of Long-chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And Weight-loss In The Management Of Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Overweight Hyperinsulinaemic Women

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 93
Gender Female
Age Range 18-29, 30-44, 45-64, 65+
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
In women given fish oil or placebo oil for 24 weeks paired with a weight loss program noted that while both groups given the weight loss program improved on various parameters, fish oil only outperformed placebo oil on increasing adiponectin and insulin resistance (women were insulin resistant at baseline)

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Improves Vascular Function And Reduces Inflammation In Obese Adolescents

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 25
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 13-17
Body Types Obese
Notes for this study:
25 obese adolescents (15.7+/-1 year of age) having 1.2g EPA+DHA daily for six weeks was able to improve vascular reactivity without significantly improving blood flow; inflammatory parameters were reduced, but cholesterol was mostly unaffected.

Acute Fish Oil And Soy Isoflavone Supplementation Increase Postprandial Serum (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And Isoflavones But Do Not Affect Triacylglycerols Or Biomarkers Of Oxidative Stress In Overweight And Obese Hypertriglyceridemic Men

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 24 hours
Number of Subjects 10
Gender Male
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
Consumption of fish oil at 1000mg (400mg EPA and 200mg DHA) with a 'Western breakfast' that was high in fat and fructose (2 sausage and egg McMuffins from McDonald's and a KoolAid drink that contained 0.75 g crystalline fructose/kg) failed to attenuate the increase in postprandial triglycerides and other biomarkers following a single dose.

Effects Of Adding Prescription Omega-3 Acid Ethyl Esters To Simvastatin (20 Mg/day) On Lipids And Lipoprotein Particles In Men And Women With Mixed Dyslipidemia

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 39
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
The addition of fish oil to simvastatin treatment (20mg; control group for comparisons was also given simvastatin and placebo capsules) was able to confer triglyceride reducing properties while augmenting cholesterol reduction and HDL increasing effects of the statin drug.

Fish Oil Supplementation In Type 2 Diabetes: A Quantitative Systematic Review

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Meta analysis
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 823
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
Studies included investigated dosages between 3-18g fish oils daily, and found no significant evidence to support a reduction in fasting glucose or insulin.

Decrease in triglycerides noted.

Effects Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Postprandial Triglycerides And Monocyte Activation

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 30
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
4g of fish oil daily for 3 weeks was able to reduce triglycerides (18%) and reduce postprandial triglyceride AUC (16%) but failed to significantly influence any measured parameter of monocytic activation following oral ingestion of fatty acids (normally suppressive of immunity).

Moderate Intake Of N-3 Fatty Acids For 2 Months Has No Detrimental Effect On Glucose Metabolism And Could Ameliorate The Lipid Profile In Type 2 Diabetic Men. Results Of A Controlled Study

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 12
Gender Male
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
1.08g EPA and 0.72g DHA for 9 weeks in a small group of diabetic men was able to reduce triglycerides without significantly affecting glucose concentrations.

Effects Of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements On Serum Lipids, Apolipoproteins And Malondialdehyde In Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 50
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 30-44, 45-64
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
Study carried out with 2g fish oil daily in a sample of patients with type II diabetes. No changes in markers of type II diabetes (glucose, insulin, HbA1c) but a decrease in triglycerides and a decrease in ApoB-100 were noted alongside a reduction in MDA (biomarker of lipid peroxidation)

Effect Of Omega 3 Fatty Acid On Plasma Lipids, Cholesterol And Lipoprotein Fatty Acid Content In NIDDM Patients

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 28
Gender n/a
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
1.4g EPA and 880mg DHA for 3 months in 28 type II diabetics of undisclosed gender (with placebo given linseed oil, a source of omega-3 as ALA) noted a reduction in triglycerides but no other parameter appeared to be altered.

Effect Of Fish Oil Concentrate On Lipoprotein Composition In NIDDM

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 13
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
2.6g EPA and 1.4g DHA via 7.5g fish oil for 6 weeks in type II diabetics noted dose-dependent reductions in triglycerides while there was an increase in both LDL and apolipoprotein B that associates with LDL. HbA1c and glucose increased only at the higher dose but reached significance.

Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Decreases Liver Fat Content In Children With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Double-blind Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 60
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 7-12, 13-17
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
Study conducted in children with confirmed Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease treated with either 250 or 500mg DHA daily. Although there was a reduction in liver fat, the improvement in TGs and insulin sensitivity were similar between fish oil and placebo.

Metabolic And Endocrine Effects Of Long-chain Versus Essential Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 51
Gender Female
Age Range 30-44, 45-64
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
3.5g of omega-3 daily was able to reduce triglycerides in a population of women with Polycystic ovarian syndrome and reduced insulin resistance in response to an oral glucose tolerance test but not at rest. Reduction in HbA1c (adjusted) was small at 0.1%

Dose-response Effects Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Triglycerides, Inflammation, And Endothelial Function In Healthy Persons With Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 26
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 30-44, 45-64
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
Compared low dose (0.85g/d) against high dose (3.4g/d) in 26 otherwise healthy persons with hypertriglyceridemia.

Found significant decreases in triglycerides (-27%) in high dose group, but not low dose group.

No effect on any inflammatory parameters measured.

Effects Of Fish Oil Supplements In NIDDM Subjects. Controlled Study

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 80
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
10g of fish oil (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) daily for 6 weeks in type II diabetics noted reduction in triglycerides and spontaneous platelet aggregation while glucose was increased at week 3 (not at week 6) and total cholesterol unaffected.

A Meta-analysis Shows That Docosahexaenoic Acid From Algal Oil Reduces Serum Triglycerides And Increases HDL-cholesterol And LDL-cholesterol In Persons Without Coronary Heart Disease

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Meta analysis
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 485
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
With a median dose of 1.68g DHA from Algae (Algal oils) was associated with a 0.20mmol/L reduction in triglycerides, a 0.07mmol/L increase in HDL-C and a 0.23mmol/L increase in LDL-C.

Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis With Marine And Botanical Oils: Influence On Serum Lipids

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Cohort
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 156
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
EPA and DHA were effective in treating dyslipidemia in a population of persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis, but was not significantly better than Gamma-Linoleic Acid (Borage Seed Oil); no placebo control was used and a 51% dropout rate was noted.

Trial lasted 18 months. Fish oil was dosed at 3.5g daily (2.1g EPA, 1.4g DHA)

A Comparison Of The Effects Of N-3 Fatty Acids From Linseed Oil And Fish Oil In Well-controlled Type II Diabetes

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 11
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
1,800mg EPA and 1,200mg DHA given for 3 months in type II diabetics trended towards decreasing insulin sensitivity (not statistically significant) and did not affect any other glycemic parameter; triglycerides were again reduced.

Fish Oil Supplementation Alters Circulating Eicosanoid Concentrations In Young Healthy Men

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 10
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
In 10 otherwise healthy young males given 2,000mg EPA and 1,000mg DHA for 3 months, a beneficial modulation of eicosanoids was noted (increased prostaglandin J2α and more thromboxane B2, the inactive metabolite of the platelet activating thromboxane A2) alongside a beneficial change in lipid profile.

Effects Of Moderate-dose Omega-3 Fish Oil On Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mood After Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 102
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Obese, Overweight
Notes for this study:
3g fish oil daily, delivering 1.2g omega-3 fatty acids (0.7g EPA and 0.5g DHA) over 12 weeks in a population of persons post-stroke.

No significant effects found on any parameter measured including lipoprotein content, size and shape of LDL, triglycerides, or inflammatory markers.

Effects Of Fish Oil Supplementation On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In NIDDM

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 10
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA from 10g fish oil for three weeks in type II diabetics increased glucose to a higher degree than safflower control (14% relative to 11%). This study noted that triglycerides were significantly reduced when controlling for the subset of persons with hypertriglyceridemia, but not overall as a group.

Effects Of Fish Oil Supplementation On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In NIDDM

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 10
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA from 10g fish oil for three weeks in type II diabetics increased glucose to a higher degree than safflower control (14% relative to 11%). This study noted that triglycerides were significantly reduced when controlling for the subset of persons with hypertriglyceridemia, but not overall as a group.

Effect Of Fish Oil (n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids) On Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins And Inflammatory Markers In HIV-infected Patients Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 51
Gender n/a
Notes for this study:
After 12 weeks of treatment, plasma triglycerides were reduced by 0.14mmol/L whereas in the control group they increased by 0.36mmol/L.

No significant effects on other parameters such as C-reactive protein, markers of inflammation, or HDL-C.

Effects Of Prescription Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters On Fasting Lipid Profile In Subjects With Primary Hypercholesterolemia

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 31
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
Study conducted in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia.

LDL-C showed a slight increase (+3.4%) as well as HDL (+3.3%) whereas large drops noted in vLDL-D (-18.8%) and Triglycerides (-18.7%).

Increases in size of LDL-C and HDL-C were noted.

Effect Of 6 Weeks Of N-3 Fatty-acid Supplementation On Oxidative Stress In Judo Athletes

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 36
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Average
Notes for this study:
Study conducted in National Level Judo athletes with 1g of fish oil daily for 6 weeks.

Found increases in oxidative stress at rest and post-exercise in the fish oil supplementation group, and greater exercise-induced increases in oxidation.

Effects Of Dietary Modification And Fish Oil Supplementation On Dyslipoproteinemia In Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 24
Gender Both Genders
Body Types Overweight, Average
Notes for this study:
In persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (Lupus); fish oil is able to reduce triglycerides without significantly influencing other cardiometabolic parameters. The treatment of dyslipoproteinemia occurring in approximately half of patients treated with fish oil.

Dietary Fish Oil Decreases C-reactive Protein, Interleukin-6, And Triacylglycerol To HDL-cholesterol Ratio In Postmenopausal Women On HRT

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 30
Gender Female
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
Fish oil, at 14g per day for 5 weeks of fish oil (2.56g omega-3, 1.18 EPA and 1.00 DHA) was able to decrease IL-6 and C-RP in a group of post-menopausal women on Hormone Replacement Therapy.

Triglycerides also decreased, and changes in cholesterol were not statistically significant.

Supplementation With Omega3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And All-rac Alpha-tocopherol Alone And In Combination Failed To Exert An Anti-inflammatory Effect In Human Volunteers

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 80
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44, 45-64
Body Types Overweight, Average
Notes for this study:
Fish oil, alone (1.5g omega3) or with alpha-tocopherol (800IU) failed to alter serum levels of C-reactive protein or the monocytic response to MCP-1 (TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1b unaffected). Lipids unchanged.

A Comparison Of Fish Oil Or Corn Oil Supplements In Hyperlipidemic Subjects With NIDDM

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 40
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
2.6g EPA with 2.4g DHA via 9g fish oil in the low dose group (double that for high dose) in type II diabetics for 12 weeks noted a transient increase in LDL cholesterol at 6 weeks (12 weeks no longer reached significance) with reductions in triglycerides and vLDL without affecting other measured parameters.

Benefits Of Fish Oil Supplementation In Hyperlipidemia: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Meta analysis
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 47
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
With a weighted average daily intake of 3.25g EPA+DHA (variable ratio) a reduction of 0.34mmol/L TGs was noted to be significant, no change in total cholesterol reached significance, and increases in both HDL (+0.01mmol/L) and LDL (+0.06mmol/L)

Reduction of TG was noted to be greater with the higher dosages of fish oil, and larger overall in periods of high blood TGs relatived to normal blood TGs.

Lipoproteins were not found to be dose dependent.

The Effects Of Low Dose N-3 Fatty Acids On Serum Lipid Profiles And Insulin Resistance Of The Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 6+ Months
Number of Subjects 124
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
A 6 month trial was conducted with 1g of fish oil (180mg EPA, 120mg DHA) in a cohort of elderly but otherwise healthy Iranians.

No changes in triglycerides were noted in the fish oil group, but an increase was noted in placebo. It was concluded that fish oil could prevent an increase in triglycerides. A decrease was noted relative to placebo.

Parameters of glucose metabolism unaffected.

N-3 LC-PUFA-enriched Dairy Products Are Able To Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Double-blind, Cross-over Study

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 51
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64
Notes for this study:
Both groups received intervention, although the control received dairy products while experimental had theirs laced with 3g omega-3 fish oils. HDL decreased to a lesser extent than placebo, suggesting a relative increase.

Patients were hypertriglyceridemic, and the study was a cross-over in design with a ten week washout period (trial periods 15 weeks each).

No changes in DNA oxidation rates were noted.

Age- And Dose-dependent Effects Of An Eicosapentaenoic Acid-rich Oil On Cardiovascular Risk Factors In Healthy Male Subjects

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 155
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29, 30-44, 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight, Average
Notes for this study:
Studied both young (18-42) and old (53-70) male subjects at 1.35, 2.7 or 4.05 g EPA daily for 12 weeks.

Found no influence on blood pressure or total cholesterol, and found a decrease in triglycerides in both groups, and was more significant at the lowest dose.

Found decreases in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in both groups, which was dose dependent. Increased soluble E-selectin in youth that was dose dependent.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids And Hypertriglyceridemia In HIV-infected Subjects On Antiretroviral Therapy: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Meta analysis
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 4
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
Analyzed 4 studies that met inclusion criteria out of a possible 33 in regards to lowering triglycerides in persons on anti-retroviral treatment for HIV (of which high TGs is a side-effect).

900-3360mg EPA+DHA was studied, with more significance in lowering TGs seen in the range of 1800-2900mg EPA+DHA. Benefit seen short term (4-8 weeks) and long term (12-16 weeks).

Fish Oil Supplementation Improves Endothelial Function In Normoglycemic Offspring Of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 50
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Overweight, Average
Notes for this study:
Study was conducted to investigate the effects of omega-3 supplementations on the endothelium (blood vessels) of children of those with type II diabetes.

2g of fish oil as ethyl esters with variable EPA:DHA ratio (0.9-1.5:1)

Found an improvement in hemodynamics as assessed by FMD, a reduction in pro-inflammatory TNF-a, and triglycerides. The decrease in TNF-a may have influenced

Moderate Doses Of EPA And DHA From Re-esterified Triacylglycerols But Not From Ethyl-esters Lower Fasting Serum Triacylglycerols In Statin-treated Dyslipidemic Subjects: Results From A Six Month Randomized Controlled Trial

Effect Decrease
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 150
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 30-44, 45-64, 65+
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
Ethyl Esters were paired against re-esterified triglycerides at a moderate dose (1.68g n3; 1.01g EPA and 0.67g DHA) for six months.

Subjects were dyslipidemic and statin-treated; fish oil resulted in significant declines in triglycerides only in the re-esterified group. Most likely due to lesser bioavailability in the ethyl ester group paired with a low dose.