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Effects Of Oral Creatine And Resistance Training On Serum Myostatin And GASP-1

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 27
Gender n/a
Notes for this study:
Standard loading then maintenance for 8 weeks was associated with a 17% reduction in myostatin (7% in the placebo group, due to weight training) and with increases in lean mass and power output.

Effect Of Creatine Supplementation On Body Composition And Performance: A Meta-analysis

Effect Increase
Trial Design Meta analysis
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 100
Gender Both Genders
Notes for this study:
This 2003 meta-analysis of 100 studies found a large body of evidence that creatine monohydrate increases both power output and lean mass, but little to no evidence that it benefits aerobic and submaximal-endurance activities. No significant differences were noted between genders or between trained and untrained individuals.

The Effects Of Pre Versus Post Workout Supplementation Of Creatine Monohydrate On Body Composition And Strength

Effect Increase
Trial Design Cohort
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 19
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Overweight, Average
Notes for this study:
19 recreational male bodybuilders in their twenties training some 5 days/week for 4 weeks were divided into two groups. One group took 5 g of creatine pre-workout; the other, post-workout. Differences between the two groups with regard to bench press (one repetition maximum), lean mass and fat mass were nonsignificant. However, based on the magnitude inferences, the study concluded that consuming creatine post-workout was superior to pre-workout with regard to body composition and strength.

Effects Of Creatine Supplementation On Nutritional Status, Muscle Function And Quality Of Life In Patients With Colorectal Cancer--a Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 30
Gender n/a
Notes for this study:
When lesser intensity chemotherapies were controlled for, creatine supplementation improved Phase Angle measurements (an indicator of Body Cell Mass and vitality). Statistically insignificant results when chemotherapy intensity was not controlled for.

Loading phase of 20g daily (four doses) for 5 days, reduced to 5g daily (two doses) for the remainder of the trial.

No effects on quality of life and subjective well-being of colorectal cancer patients. No beneficial effects noted on muscle function or mass in this population either.

Effect Of Different Frequencies Of Creatine Supplementation On Muscle Size And Strength In Young Adults

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 38
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Average
Notes for this study:
Effects noted in both men and women, but men more responsive. At least in those given a new workout regimen, there was no significant difference in the gains in power and strength over 6 weeks when working out twice a week relative to thrice a week.

Effects Of Creatine Supplementation In Taekwondo Practitioners

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 10
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Average
Notes for this study:
50 mg/kg/day (approximately 3.5 g, alongside 30 g of sucrose) for 6 weeks increased the circulating triglycerides and body fat percentage (+0.17%) of martial artists, but not their fat mass. Lactate and liver enzymes were lower, relative to placebo, but not to a significant extent.

Comparison Of Creatine Ingestion And Resistance Training On Energy Expenditure And Limb Blood Flow

Effect Increase
Values 1.7 kg in Cr-RT group versus insignificant differences across time for RT-placebo and Cr alone groups.
Trial Design Randomized trial
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 30
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Untrained
Notes for this study:
30 healthy but untrained male volunteers were given either placebo or a loading dose of creatine (5 g four times a day for 5 days) followed by a maintenance dose (5 g twice a day) for 28 days and underwent 5 hours of resistance training a week or remained on creatine without training. Creatine plus resistance training improved calf and forearm blood flow. Fat-free mass, strength, and resting metabolic rate also increased.

Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Does Not Increase Muscle Strength, Lean Body Mass, Or Muscle Phosphocreatine In Patients With Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 34
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Average
Notes for this study:
5 g/day for 4 months in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) failed to improve muscular strength (handgrip) or lung function (FEV1) relative to placebo, nor was there any influence on functional tests or biochemical parameters.

Effect Of In-season Creatine Supplementation On Body Composition And Performance In Rugby Union Football Players

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 18
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Overweight, Average

Effect Of Creatine And Beta-alanine Supplementation On Performance And Endocrine Responses In Strength/power Athletes

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 33
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Overweight, Average
Notes for this study:
Conducted in collegiate level football playing males.

Synergism noted between creatine and beta-alanine coingestion in regards to body composition, but power and hormonal differences attributed to creatine.

Creatine Supplementation And Swimming Performance

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-2 Weeks
Number of Subjects 26
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Average
Notes for this study:
Two groups took placebo for 2 weeks, then one of the groups switched to creatine for a 6-day loading phase (5 g four times per day, so 20 g/day) followed by a 6-day maintenance phase (5 g twice per day, so 10 g/day). Compared to men in the placebo group, men in the creatine group saw a 2% improvement in their 50-m swims (6 sprints separated by 3-minute breaks) but none in their 25-yd swims (10 sprints separated by 1-minute breaks). Compared to women in the placebo group, women in the creatine group saw no improvement in either type of swim.

Effect Of Creatine Ingestion After Exercise On Muscle Thickness In Males And Females

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 21
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Untrained
Notes for this study:
Dosage was at 0.2g/kg bodyweight, consumed after training one side of the body. Experimental group consumed placebo during training of non-investigated side, whereas control group consumed placebo at all times. Trial lasted 6 weeks.

Statistically significant increases in hypertrophy on trained limb only for males supplementing creatine, with no significance in females.

Effects Of 4 Weeks Of Creatine Supplementation In Junior Swimmers On Freestyle Sprint And Swim Bench Performance

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 20
Gender Both Genders
Age Range 13-17
Body Types Trained, Average
Notes for this study:
27 days of creatine (20 g/day for 5 day, then 5 g/day for 22 days) failed to improve the body composition of junior swimmers. It also failed to improve their sprint (50-m sprint, 5-minute break, 100-m freestyle), but it did improve their swim-bench (30-s swim, 5-minute break, 30-s swim).

Creatine Monohydrate And Resistance Training Increase Bone Mineral Content And Density In Older Men

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length n/a
Number of Subjects 29
Gender n/a
Notes for this study:
Older men aged 71 were studied. Dosages used was a loading period of 0.3g/kg bodyweight for 5 days and 0.07g/kg afterwards as maintenance.

Improvements in lean mass and bone mineral density over 12 weeks, when combined with resistance training, as measured by DEXA.

Effect Of Creatine On Swimming Velocity, Body Composition And Hydrodynamic Variables

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 16
Gender Female
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Trained, Average
Notes for this study:
20g a day for 21 days (no loading or maintenance; just straight doses) conducted in swimmers, which may explain lack of results when compared to studies in resistance training.

Beneficial Effect Of Creatine Supplementation In Knee Osteoarthritis

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 24
Gender Female
Age Range 45-64
Body Types Overweight
Notes for this study:
Supplementation of 20g creatine for five days followed by 5g a day for the remainder of the 12 week trial in women with osteoarthritis noted that supplementation was able to significantly reduce knee stiffness (52%), pain (45%), and physical function (41%) relative to baseline, all values being significantly more than placebo.

Creatine But Not Betaine Supplementation Increases Muscle Phosphorylcreatine Content And Strength Performance

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-2 Weeks
Number of Subjects 34
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29, 30-44
Body Types Untrained, Average
Notes for this study:
Supplementation of creatine at 20g for a period of 10 days was sufficient to increase muscular creatine concentrations as well as power output (squat and bench testing) in otherwise healthy adult men (no significant changes in body weight noted, although nonsignificant trends existed); 2g trimethylglycine failed to replicate these effects, and was not additive.

Effects Of Creatine Loading And Prolonged Creatine Supplementation On Body Composition, Fuel Selection, Sprint And Endurance Performance In Humans

Effect None
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-6 months
Number of Subjects 20
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Untrained, Average
Notes for this study:
20 g/day for 5 days followed by 2 g/day for 37 days in healthy sedentary omnivorous males increased muscle creatine but failed to improve VO~2~ max. Performance on intermittent sprints increased after the 5 days of loading (7.03±1.0% in the creatine group versus 3.06±1.4% in the placebo group), but the improvement after the 37 days of maintenance was not statistically significant.

Creatine Supplementation Improves Muscular Performance In Older Women

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 1-7 Days
Number of Subjects 30
Gender Female
Age Range 45-64, 65+
Body Types Untrained, Overweight
Notes for this study:
Conducted in 58-71 year old women. Creatine at 0.03g/kg bodyweight showed benefits on parameters of muscular power, no adverse effects reported.

Effects Of Creatine On Body Composition And Strength Gains After 4 Weeks Of Resistance Training In Previously Nonresistance-trained Humans

Effect Increase
Trial Design Double blind
Trial Length 2-4 Weeks
Number of Subjects 19
Gender Male
Age Range 18-29
Body Types Untrained, Average
Notes for this study:
Found increases in power and hypertrophy when controlled for responders, based on muscular creatine uptake.

Dosed at 20g creatine monohydrate daily with 140g dextrose for 5 days, with 5g creatine monohydrate with 35g dextrose as maintenance for the remainder of the 4 weeks.

Association noted between degree of muscle uptake and amount of benefit gained from creatine supplementation.