For the most part, a myth. There is not enough evidence to suggest a relationship between exogenous testosterone usage and anger, and a fair bit of evidence to say that no relationship exists.
Injections of 200mg/week testosterone note a positive trend towards increased sexual behaviour, although non-significant. Another study with the same dosages of testosterone (as enanthate) found increases in sexual desire, but not necessarily sexual action; there was no increase in self-reported aggression either. Men who are hypogonadic before testosterone administration appear to be more susceptible to the increase in sexuality.
One study on healthy men and those with reduced testosterone levels subject to testosterone enanthate (200mg weekly, twice that for hypogonadism) do not report increased aggression. However, when controlled for measures of impulsivity a relationship is seen. A study conducted with 600mg weekly and surveys given to both active/sedentary men and their spouses reported no relation between testosterone and anger.
Other studies note (via self-report) slight increases in agitation and aggression at 200mg weekly.
Differences in results may be due to the given survey's word structure.
Hypogonadic men (men with reduced testosterone levels) show an increase in subjective well-being and mood when having their testosterone levels replenished whereas eugonadic men (normal test levels) show no treatment effect. Other studies note slight increases in subject well-being across the board.
200mg testosterone enanthate weekly in healthy men (or biweekly in hypogonadism) seem to increase verbal fluency while decreasing spatial abilities and in hypogonadic men, these effects are somewhat contested though, as evidence by a study in elderly men showing seemingly opposite effects.
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- Metabolic and behavioral effects of high-dose, exogenous testosterone in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1994) Bagatell CJ, et al.
- The effects of exogenous testosterone on sexuality and mood of normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1992) Anderson RA, Bancroft J, Wu FC.
- Androgen-behavior correlations in hypogonadal men and eugonadal men. I. Mood and response to auditory sexual stimuli. Horm Behav. (1997) Alexander GM, et al.
- Exogenous testosterone, aggression, and mood in eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Physiol Behav. (2002) O'Connor DB, et al.
- The effects of supraphysiological doses of testosterone on angry behavior in healthy eugonadal men--a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1996) Tricker R, et al.
- Muscular strength, body composition and health responses to the use of testosterone enanthate: a double blind study. J Sci Med Sport. (1999) Giorgi A, Weatherby RP, Murphy PW.
- Activational effects of testosterone on cognitive function in men. Neuropsychologia. (2001) O'Connor DB, et al.
- Androgen-behavior correlations in hypogonadal men and eugonadal men. II. Cognitive abilities. Horm Behav. (1998) Alexander GM, et al.
- Testosterone and cognition in elderly men: a single testosterone injection blocks the practice effect in verbal fluency, but has no effect on spatial or verbal memory. Biol Psychiatry. (2000) Wolf OT, et al.