Study under review: Marine Oil Supplements for Arthritis Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
Arthritis afflicts 46 million Americans, or approximately 21% of the U.S. population. Although types of arthritis differ in their cause, all are characterized by joint inflammation that leads to pain, stiffness, swelling, and other unpleasant symptoms. For instance, osteoarthritis is caused by a progressive loss of cartilage that leads to joint inflammation via bone-on-bone rubbing, whereas rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that targets joint tissue. Some of the underlying mechanisms are pictured in Figure 1.
The omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, are heavily investigated anti-inflammatory compounds. A recent meta-analysis showed that EPA and DHA supplementation significantly reduced several inflammatory molecules, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It is possible that supplementing with EPA and DHA could help relieve arthritic symptoms, such as pain, by exerting an anti-inflammatory effect.
Three meta-analyses have been published comparing omega-3 supplementation to a control treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, all of which found a beneficial effect of EPA and DHA for reducing joint pain, tenderness, and stiffness. However, these meta-analyses included all omega-3 fatty acids, not just EPA and DHA, and did not quantitatively assess the risk of bias and the quality of evidence. Plus, the most recent meta-analysis was conducted in 2012, meaning that five years of research has not been evaluated.
The study under review is a meta-analysis looking at the effect of EPA and DHA on arthritic symptoms, including pain, physical function, and inflammation. The study also evaluated adverse events from EPA and DHA supplementation.
Adapted from: Pap et al. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015 Jul.
Arthritis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the joints. It stands to reason that EPA and DHA may benefit patients with arthritis, considering their potent anti-inflammatory effects. Accordingly, the current meta-analysis sought to evaluate whether EPA and DHA supplementation reduced arthritic pain, benefited physical function, reduced inflammation, and was tolerable and safe.
Other Articles in Issue #28 (February 2017)
Protein for hypertension: the whey to go?
Dairy has been linked to lower blood pressure. But can a high intake of whey protein, without the rest of the dairy components, show a benefit as well?
The mindfulness-body connection
Health, and health-promoting habits, are massively influenced by how you think. This systematic review looked at mindfulness interventions, to see if they led to weight loss and psychological benefits.
Up your protein, lower your diabetes risk?
Pre-diabetes can often lead to diabetes, and pre-diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate. Can switching out some carbs for protein help treat prediabetes?
Interview: Bill Willis, PhD
Bill is one of the few researchers who's actively competed in bodybuilding. Plus he researches muscle repair!
Coconut water ... overhyped and understudied?
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SCD for IBD?
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis are difficult to treat, to say the least. Many have anecdotally found success with the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, which is tested more rigorously in this trial.
Interview: Dana Ellis Hunnes, PhD, MPH, RD
Are you considering adopting a plant-based diet? Dr. Hunnes gives both a global and personal view.