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Nulls: July-August 2021
A quick roundup of recent studies that found no clear evidence of an effect.
Beyond strict meal planning: dietary flexibility won’t hurt body composition goals
This study suggests that people looking to shed some fat for physique can do equally well with flexible and rigid diet plans.
Is dieting with meal replacements better than just dieting?
Meal replacements held a slight but statistically significant advantage over low-calorie diets for weight loss, but the results weren’t different compared to very-low-calorie diets. Replacing more food-based meals tended to yield better weight loss outcomes.
Nulls: May–June 2021
Here's a quick roundup of studies that looked for evidence of efficacy but came up empty-handed.
Deeper Dive: Evaluating the results of an exploratory trial on diet and Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in older people
This exploratory study found evidence suggesting that a Mediterranean-style diet improves Alzheimer’s biomarkers in people with normal cognition. But its results in people with mild cognitive impairment were counterintuitive.
Digital self-monitoring improves adherence to habits associated with weight loss
Monitoring healthy habits using digital tools improves outcomes, according to this recent meta-analysis. However, the authors didn’t find studies lasting more than a year, leaving the longer-term impact unclear.
Citrulline malate may help you pump out a few extra reps
According to this meta-analysis, taking six to eight grams before a resistance training session could help crank out a few more reps. There was some evidence of publication bias, though.
Mini: When are lifestyle changes enough to treat high blood pressure and cholesterol?
We give a quick rundown of a recent scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the impact of lifestyle changes on blood pressure and cholesterol.
Can beer hit the ‘pause’ button on menopause symptoms?
While this study found that beer could help with what ales people with menopausal symptoms, design and reporting issues hold this study back from being pitcher perfect.
Deeper Dive: How do structural aspects of dietary carbohydrates determine glycemic response and appetite?
Starch structure seems to play a role in postprandial glycemic response but has no apparent impact on appetite hormones or satiety.
Deeper Dive: Another possible strike against the relationship between TMAO and heart disease
This secondary analysis of two trials found that TMAO levels go up even when consuming heart-healthy foods, raising questions about whether TMAO actually harms the heart.
Deeper Dive: An inspirational approach to lowering blood pressure
Using a device to create resistance while inhaling could help lower the blood pressure of older adults with hypertension.
Deeper Dive: Melatonin mysteries — can supplementation decrease circadian misalignment and body weight in night shift workers?
There was no apparent effect compared to placebo, but the study still hints at a positive impact.
Creatine dosing strategies for lean mass and strength gains in older adults
According to this meta-analysis, people over 50 who lift get a slight boost by supplementing creatine, with loading dosing and maybe pre-workout dosing providing better benefits.
Mini: Reliable associations between dietary factors and different kinds of cancer
In this Mini, we briefly describe the most reliable associations between dietary factors and cancers at various anatomical sites according to a recent umbrella review.