About Us

We're an independent and unbiased encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.

Mission Statement

Examine analyzes and summarizes the latest scientific research to help you be healthier.

What Is Examine?

Examine is the largest database of nutrition and supplement research on the Internet. Founded in early 2011, our mission is to analyze the full body of evidence to help you make healthy choices. As an educational organization, we are not affiliated with any supplement or food company, nor are any members of our research team.

All of our evidence summaries are fully referenced, on topics ranging from popular supplements like fish oil and vitamin D to the more controversial nutrition topics like soy or saturated fat.

We also take an evidence-based approach to common questions our readers ask, such as the optimum amount of daily protein, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for common nutrition myths and fads such as detoxes.

At Examine, we’re not here to tell you what to do. Instead, we simply tell you what the evidence says. And in cases where the research is mixed, we make that clear, too.

How is Examine funded?

Examine is an entirely independent organization, and does not accept any money from outside sources.

For the vast majority of nutrition websites, revenue is directly proportional to pageviews or products sold—whether they be supplement bottles or diet plans. Thus, rather than an evenhanded and thorough interpretation of the evidence, for many websites, sensationalism sells (read more on sensationalism).

Rather, 100% of our revenue is generated from additional research syntheses that we sell to both health professionals and laypeople: Examine+. All of the information on the website is freely accessible; these additional informational products are meant for those looking for added depth and step-by-step instructions.

We do not allow:

  • Donors
  • Sponsors
  • Consulting clients
  • Advertisements
  • Affiliations

We have a very strict no-gift policy for our staff members. Even books that are sent our way are simply deposited into recycling.

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    How and why did Examine start?

    Examine is our answer to a fundamental problem: given that nutrition science is incredibly complex and constantly evolving, how can you separate the wheat from the chaff? If a website cites a study, how do you know it’s not cherry-picked or, on the flipside, methodologically flawed?

    For more, see Our Story.

    In other words, who can you trust to be completely objective?

    In other words, who can you trust to be completely objective?

    We decided to address this problem by building a systematic and objective database, free from advertising or industry partnerships. We never start with an objective, like low-carb or high-carb, pro-supplement or anti-supplement. Rather, we simply report on all the evidence that’s been published. We also regularly update a page on our mistakes in order to be as transparent as possible.

    For more, see Our Mistakes.

    Editors

    The editors of Examine perform the primary job of collating scientific research into a cohesive picture.

    Kamal Patel

    Director

    MBA, MPH, PhD(c) in nutrition

    Kamal is cofounder and director of Examine. He holds two master’s degrees from Johns Hopkins University, in business and in public health, and is on hiatus from a PhD in nutrition for which he investigated links between diet and chronic pain. He’s published peer-reviewed articles on vitamin D and calcium, as well as on a variety of clinical research topics, and was recognized by Men's Health UK in 2020 as one of the most influential men in health and fitness. He’s also been involved in research on fructose and liver health, on nutrition in low-income areas, and on mindfulness meditation.

    Gregory Lopez

    MA in molecular biophysics, PharmD

    Gregory Lopez is editor in chief for Examine. He obtained his master’s degree in molecular biophysics from the Johns Hopkins University and his Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Maryland, Baltimore. In his spare time, Greg pursues interests in meditation, psychology, philosophy, and swing dancing.

    Researchers

    Researchers are tasked with poring over primary research and helping collate it.

    Bill Willis

    PhD in biomedical science

    An avid member of the fitness industry for many years, Bill is a postdoctoral fellow at the Ohio State University, where he’s researching the role of metabolic stress in the control of protein synthesis and inflammation.

    Daryl-Nault-Picture

    Daryl Nault

    BA in psychology, MS in clinical nutrition, MS in integrative medical research

    Daryl resides with her partner and her cat in the Pacific Northwest, where she enjoys hiking, camping, and kayaking. Her indoor time consists mostly of analyzing data, learning new skills, teaching research literacy, and doing her own research—which focuses on how the general public uses web-based information to make health decisions.

    Gabrielle Fundaro

    BS in exercise, sport, and health education; PhD in human nutrition, foods, and exercise

    Gabrielle completed a BS in exercise, sport, and health education before earning her PhD in human nutrition, foods, and exercise at Virginia Tech by studying the effects of probiotics on metabolism and inflammation.

    After four years as an assistant professor of exercise science, she left academia to work full-time as a nutrition coach and international speaker. She also started a lifestyle-coaching telehealth business and, with fellow nutrition coach Shannon Beer, authored a series of articles intended to enhance coaching practices and promote industry conversations by bridging ideological gaps with shared meaning and deeper understanding of how and why people change. This article series led to the development of an integrative coaching framework and ongoing webinar series. Four years later, she transitioned to running her telehealth business full-time and began writing for Examine, aligning herself with her mission to help people live authentically and make informed decisions.

    Gabrielle loves to spend time in the Arizona mountains, hit the weights, and train her smarty-pants Australian Shepherd, Shay.

    Nick Milazzo

    MSc in medical science, MPH

    After studying chemistry and biochemistry at Middlebury College as an undergraduate, Nick earned a master’s degree in medical science and public health from the University of Vermont. He is fascinated by the art and science of human improvement, especially as seen through the lenses of medicine, nutrition, fitness, and mindfulness. His Examine duties include analyzing research data and leading the team of researchers working on the Study Summaries. In his spare time, Nick practices Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and plays chess and the guitar.

    Marina Shkayeva

    PharmD

    Marina obtained her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy and completed a drug-information residency with a focus on natural medicine research. Afterward, she spent a number of years working in community pharmacy and writing for Natural Medicines. Marina is passionate about preventive care, evidence-based nutrition, and gerontology (the study of aging). In her spare time, she dances ’Froca and samba, cycles, practices yoga, and tries to increase her consumption of fatty fish.

    Rachel Hathcock

    BSN, RN

    After receiving her BSN, Rachel became a registered nurse and certified research associate. She worked in a variety of clinical settings (with a special focus on emergency medicine), while also managing phase IV research projects and manuscript publications. Outside of work, you might find her trail running, reading a book, or singing a Disney song.

    Antonis Damianou

    MSc

    Having worked as a personal trainer, online coach, and fitness writer for a decade, Antonis is especially interested in the art and science of optimizing body composition, maximizing physical performance, and maintaining good health. After three years of working as a part-time researcher for Examine, he has gone on to become a full-time team member. When he is not geeking out over the latest nutrition and supplementation research, Antonis enjoys hitting the weights, taking nature walks in his sunny home country of Cyprus, and playing video games.

    Michael Murray

    RDN, CSCS, CISSN

    Mike is a registered dietitian, certified strength and conditioning specialist, and sports nutritionist with a Bachelor of Science in nutrition from La Salle University. After years of being led astray by popular bro-scientists in the fitness industry, Mike became engrossed in scientific research to optimize his progress as a bodybuilder and help others achieve their health and body-composition goals. Outside of work, you can find him lifting weights in his basement or cleaning plate after plate at an all-you-can-eat sushi buffet.

    Morgan Pfiffner,

    MS in Nutrition

    An interest in understanding the relationship between diet and disease led Morgan to obtain a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and a master’s degree in nutrition. He is propelled by a passion for the science of health and often struggles to balance a desire for definitive answers with his natural skepticism. He lives in the Pacific Northwest, where his hobbies include traversing forests and making music.

    Meredith Yetter

    From managing a supplement store in the late 1990s to blogging about health and fitness in the late 2000s, Meredith has been a bit of a nutrition autodidact for over twenty years. She subscribes to way too many health-related newsletters and Facebook groups. A lover of PubMed rabbit holes, Meredith is in the process of investigating some of her family members’ undiagnosed chronic conditions. When she isn’t lifting weights in her basement, Meredith is parenting two sons, caring for a flock of chickens, and taking long walks with her dog. Her husband’s career has given her family the opportunity to live in the most beautiful parts of the United States.

    Wyatt Brown

    Searching for ways to improve his health and frequently confused by the conflicting messages from publications and popular authors, Wyatt dove head first into the scientific research and became fascinated by its logic and methods. Contributing to his most respected website has only intensified his interest and motivated him to pursue an education in nutrition. His other interests are too many to count and go through cycles, but music and the natural world are common themes.

    Daniel Feldman

    RD, MS in human nutrition, NASM CPT

    Dan is a registered dietitian and personal trainer, with a Bachelor of Science in dietetics and a Master of Science in human nutrition. When he’s not analyzing nutrition research for Examine or helping others improve their diet and exercise habits, you can find him jamming on the piano or the acoustic guitar, or telling everyone how cool his dog is.

    Louie Neri

    BSN with Research Distinction, RN

    Louie has long struggled with chronic illnesses that doctors could neither explain nor cure. His desire to improve his own health led to his passion for learning the intricacies of medicine and nutrition science.

    As an Undergraduate Research Scholar at the Audie Murphy VA Hospital and the Barshop Institute, he published research on nutritional interventions to prevent cognitive decline and strokes. He received his BSN with a Distinction in Research from UT Health San Antonio and is currently a registered nurse working in oncology at Advocate Good Samaritan Hospital.

    Louie plans on pursuing an MPH in biostatistics and epidemiology. When he isn’t nerding out on all things nutrition, you can find him figuring out the best ways to make coffee or diving deep into the world of philosophy.

    Lucas Roldos

    MSc, PhD(c) in human nutrition

    Lucas is coordinating a clinical trial involving phytochemicals, gut microbiota, and skin health for his PhD in nutrition at McGill University, where he also coordinates a soccer league and works as a teaching assistant. He believes that education and behavioral change benefit both the self (by improving mindfulness, exercise, nutrition, and sleep) and other people (by promoting responsible social and environmental behaviors). If he’s not discussing a new study or woodworking, he’s probably walking his pup, playing sports, trying to repurpose trash, or yelling at children for littering.

    Thomas Reichhart

    MSc in biochemistry, PhD(c) in biomolecular technology

    Thomas, a former natural bodybuilder, received his BSc and MSc in biochemistry from Goethe University Frankfurt. After a deep dive into biomedical research at a leading MedTech company, he moved to Vienna to pursue a PhD in biomolecular technology. As part of his doctoral research, he’s currently engineering enzymes to use as biocatalysts for implantable glucose sensors. Outside of work, he can be found enjoying a game of recreational chess and a cup of Ethiopian coffee in a Viennese café.

    Adel Moussa

    MSc in physics, M.Ed.

    Adel discovered his passion for the science of sports and nutrition when he was a student at the University of Münster, where he later worked as a professor.

    A self-declared natural-born educator, Adel jumped at the chance to “graduate” from running his blog, SuppVersity, to contributing to Examine. He started as a reviewer for the Examine Research Digest (ERD, later NERD, later Study Deep Dives) and is now working on the website and Supplement Guides.

    When he’s not data-hunting on PubMed or Google Scholar, Adel spends his time “applying his research” at the gym and in the kitchen and cultivating friendships with people who are into health and fitness and with people who are not.

    Shyam Jayaraman

    MD

    Shyam completed his residency training in general surgery at Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN) and Anne Arundel Medical Center (Annapolis, MD). He’s currently in practice in Maryland as a general surgeon with a focus on complex abdominal-wall reconstruction. He often nerds out on peer-reviewed research on nutrition, exercise, sleep, and their interplay in physical and cognitive performance and aging. The rest of his spare time is spent on personal health and fitness, cooking, reading fiction, and playing pool or Texas hold’em.

    Stephan Guyenet

    BS in biochemistry, PhD in neuroscience

    Stephan earned a BS in biochemistry at the University of Virginia, then completed a PhD and postdoctoral fellowship in neuroscience at the University of Washington. After doing neuroscience and obesity research for twelve years, he now focuses more directly on improving public health via science communication. He’s particularly interested in the role of the brain in eating behavior and body fatness, and in using emerging evidence to understand, prevent, and treat obesity. He’s the founder and director of Red Pen Reviews, a nonprofit organization that publishes structured expert reviews of popular nutrition books. In his free time, he enjoys being outdoors, growing food, and woodworking.

    Natalka Roshak

    AB in philosophy and mathematics

    Natalka is a Canadian author, translator, and all-around nerd with a lifelong interest in research. Among other things, she has: studied philosophy and math at Harvard; programmed, administered, and fixed databases; authored over 100 technical articles; blogged for a Fortune 500; and written award-winning fiction.

    Detrick Snyder

    RDN, MPH in human nutrition

    Detrick is a Denver-based dietitian who uses his expertise in clinical research, public health, and evidence-based food-as-medicine practices to provide the most relevant, accurate, and actionable health information on the internet. After he completed a bachelor’s degree in musicology and abandoned a degree in chemistry, his culinary, health, and research interests led him to the University of Michigan for a degree in public health with a focus on human nutrition. When he’s not nerding out about nutrition science, you’ll find him cooking home-grown vegetables, scaling mountains (preferably with pedal power), or meditating in the desert.

    Henry Wideman,

    BA in writing

    Henry began analyzing research to improve his health, then combined this new passion with his background in writing to produce content for Examine. When he’s not working, you can find him debating the nutritional content of raisins with his bunny.

    Shayne McKee

    BS in biomedical science, PharmD

    After receiving his bachelor’s degree in biomedical science from the University of Central Florida, Shayne went on to receive his Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Florida. He’s passionate about medicine, health, science, and his patients. His primary interests are oncology, hematology, neurology, cardiology, and investigational drug research. While he’s a developing expert in the field of medicine, he firmly believes that lifestyle changes (changes to one’s diet and exercise habits, notably) are often the best way to improve one’s health. In his free time, he enjoys reading nonfiction, weightlifting, and practicing Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.

    Zia Poonja

    BSc in physiology, MD

    Zia completed his undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Saskatchewan and his residency in internal medicine at the University of Alberta. In 2015, after a two-year oncology fellowship, he became a medical oncologist at the University of British Columbia, where he’s now involved in research, clinical trials, and medical education. He founded Healthspan in 2021 to share the latest insights on preventive medicine. He loves powerlifting, discussing health optimization, and being the father of two wonderful children.

    Brady Holmer

    BS in exercise science, PhD(c) in applied physiology and kinesiology

    Brady earned his bachelor’s degree (with honors) from Northern Kentucky University and is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Florida, where he’s researching the effects of exercise and sleep deprivation on cardiovascular health. His other research interests include low-carb/keto diets, intermittent fasting, and how lifestyle can be used to optimize performance, health, and longevity.

    He’s a former Division I collegiate runner and is still an “endurance junkie” who loves to rack up miles on a run or bicycle. Brady spends his free time working on his podcast (Science & Chill) or hanging out with his wife and dog at breweries, where he often plays Scrabble. He also loves reading, but the “unread” section of his bookshelf grows faster than the “read” section.

    His comfort foods are a spoonful of peanut butter, chili (no beans!), ribeye steak, and dark chocolate (especially when dipped in peanut butter).

    Copy Editors

    Copy editors ensure the accuracy, consistency, and clarity of writing by honing the details of grammar, wording, and construction.

    Molly Gregas

    PhD in biomedical engineering with a minor in biophysics

    Molly’s wide-ranging interests in science and communication stem from growing up in a family of writers, teachers, and athletes, which led to participation in team sports, music, and dance and an interest in math and science. She earned her PhD in biomedical engineering with a secondary concentration in biophysics from Duke University while also auditing classNamees in the dance department and spent several years in research before immersing herself in a variety of science-related communication, publishing, and outreach initiatives.

    Working as a STEM editor for academic authors and publishers allowed her to merge her various skill sets and contribute to improving research communication. She enjoys the gratifying process of making highly technical information accessible and readable for a broader audience. Outside of work, she stubbornly insists on her pursuit of a quiet renaissance life in a time of loud specialization.

    Dmitri Barvinok

    BA in journalism

    Dmitri Barvinok graduated with a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Michigan State University. He is passionate about fighting misinformation in the media and works to bridge the gap between science writing and journalism. He is a recreational strongman and enjoys pressing heavy objects overhead.

    Jennifer Hoffner

    BA in communications/advertising

    Jenn earned her degree in copywriting (“communications/advertising”) at Rowan University but soon realized that, rather than creating content, she preferred channeling her OCD to make other people’s writing the best it could be. She started out by copyediting books and health magazines before working as a copy editor for a marketing department. After years spent helping peddle trendy diets and advice, she was happy to make her way back to integrity and true science by joining Examine. Her passion for health research comes from her body being a living illustration of Murphy’s Law: her multiple medical anomalies have made her want to explore health issues on a deeper level.

    Reviewers

    Reviewers are topical-experts who frequently contributed their expertise and knowledge to help ensure that all information presented on Examine is accurate and properly nuanced.

    Rob Stenstrom

    MD, PhD in epidemiology and biostatistics

    Rob completed his medical training at McMaster University and his Family and Emergency Medicine residency at the University of Ottawa. He also holds a PhD in Epidemiology and Biostatistics from McGill University. He has been the Research Director for the Department of Emergency Medicine at St. Paul’s Hospital since 2005, and is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of British Columbia.

    He is a member of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians Critical Care Committee, and has been involved in the development of guidelines for the use of therapeutic hypothermia post-cardiac arrest and the management and treatment of severe sepsis in the emergency department. Research interests include severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department, MRSA and bacterial resistance, pneumonia, HIV point-of-care testing, and skin and soft tissue infections in the emergency department.

    James M. Gaylor

    MD, MPM

    Jim is a board-certified emergency-department physician. He earned his MD from Boston University with AOA honors and completed a 4-year residency at Yale and a 2-year health-policy fellowship at Georgetown, where he earned his master’s degree in policy management. Jim is interested in all aspects of health policy and advocacy for his patients, having worked in the U.S. Senate, House, and Department of Health & Human Services.

    Graham Walker

    MD

    Graham is an emergency physician, a writer, and a developer. He graduated from the Stanford University School of Medicine in 2008, then did his residency in emergency medicine at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital from 2008 to 2011. His academic interests include medical education, medical simulation, and clinical informatics.

    He lives in San Francisco with his husband AJ and their two pets and enjoys spending time in Golden Gate Park, baking, and gaming.

    Support

    Sol Orwell

    Director

    Sol Orwell has a different story than most. Dabbling in web development while still in high school, he found he had a knack for building websites that were both useful and popular. He incorporated his first business while still studying computer engineering at the University of Toronto.

    In his mid-20s, he opted to retire, freeing up time to do what he wanted, when he wanted. Transforming from fat to fit, he began to investigate the whys and hows behind nutrition, health, and fitness. It was this research that led to Examine, the culmination of thousands of hours of research into anatomy and nutrition.

    Debbie Young

    Customer Support

    After a career in the beauty industry, Debbie found herself immersed in the world of health and fitness due to a health issue. Blogging and guest blogging led to new friendships, including with Sol and Kamal. At the time, she worked in customer support for online health companies but longed to support real science based on solid research. Examine has been the perfect fit as she loves helping out both our incredible team and our customers. When not working, she can be found walking Malcolm the wonder dog or training for her next 5k race in the wilds of Southern California.

    Calla Lee

    Graphic designer & user-experience researcher, BDes in visual communication, MDes in strategic foresight & innovation

    Calla started her career as a visual designer, but she quickly became fascinated by the world of systems design, futures design, and design research methods. Her fascination for how things connect and change has allowed her to work in a variety of sectors, notably the food, cannabis, non-profit, and sustainability sectors. She uses her background in graphic design to visualize everything from social media posts to complex system maps.

    Calla loves all things cuddly, yummy, and related to nature. When she’s not working, you can usually find her having a picnic with her dog in a park somewhere.

    Jernon Magcalas

    Web Developer

    Jernon Magcalas is in love with technology and adventure. He started in e-commerce platform and is now part of the tech team at Examine, where he makes sure everything functions as expected. When not working, he’s out exploring places — he loves traveling.

    Munzir Rosdi

    Developer

    Although Munzir studied graphics and multimedia in college, his passion has always been for computers and programming. First hired by Sol in the early 2000s for a previous business, Munzir has nearly two decades of experience in ensuring that large and complex systems run smoothly. When not busy improving the Examine website, Munzir is an avid stargazer and video gamer, making his nightowl tendencies a perfect fit.

    Roc Chan

    Operations, BEng in bioengineering, MSc in material science

    Roc never stopped asking “Why?” since he first understood the word. Bumping into Examine’s ethos for upholding logic and truth gave him the Why of wanting to help. He holds a BEng in bioengineering and an MSc in material science from University of Guelph. When away from the keyboard, he likes to doodle and pester his friends with silly questions that make them ask, “Why, Roc, why?”

    Why You can Trust Us

    When it comes to information on science and health, trust is paramount. There are simply too many studies, too many data points, and too many facets of disease and wellness.

    It is impossible for one person to parse and make sense of all this information.

    Yet we don’t want you to trust us just because we tell you to. Trust is earned. We aim to earn your trust by emphasizing objectivity and transparency. Our content is rigorously referenced, and not in the common Internet fashion of citing only the papers that support a given argument. Rather, we cite both sides of important topics, and don’t go beyond what studies actually report (in other words, we don’t overinterpret findings to support a particular viewpoint).

    We’re able to do this because all of our research staff is required to have no connections to supplement or food companies, and staff members regularly meet to discuss research ethics and study interpretation. We are not gurus, and we don’t pretend to have all the answers. Nobody does - that’s why science is so fun!


    100% independent

    When it comes to Examine, what you see is what you get.

    Our fundamental truth is that we are 100% independent. Nobody working at Examine has any conflict of interest - no questionable funding, no suspect affiliations, and no relationships with manufacturers. All the content is generated by our staff, not outsiders.

    We are the Switzerland of health and nutrition.


    Full Disclosure

    Examine is an unbiased nutrition and supplement resource. We are not influenced by commercial interests, product manufacturers, or any other organization, and we do not advertise or promote products or brands. Examine does not accept donations, third-party funding, or sponsorship of any kind. One hundred percent of our revenue is generated through our three information guides and subscriptions - you can see the full list under How is Examine funded?

    And that’s what makes Examine so unique and reliable: we only sell information. It doesn’t benefit us to hype up any supplement—that’s not what we’re selling. We’re selling you evidence-based analysis. Nothing more, nothing less.


    100% transparent and referenced

    Every statement we make is fully referenced—often many times over. The Examine website is comprised of millions of published words, and with over 60,000 unique references, every single claim is cited.

    Not only that, we let you see the history of our pages as we’ve updated them over the years. Our information is all public so you can double-check any of our work.

    We do not believe in a “just trust us” mentality - we show our work.

    See Our Mistakes page for more.


    We are not gurus

    One of the biggest issues online is that a single person may be thought to have the solutions to everything about your health. A cult of personality is formed around these gurus.

    The reality is that your health is incredibly complex; humans are in fact most complex machines on Earth. It is outright impossible for one person to know and have all the solutions.

    This is why we have a team of diverse backgrounds - to ensure that we traverse the full breadth and depth of health to help you get the truth.


    Science is difficult; we don’t pretend we have all the answers

    If there’s one thing that sets us apart from gurus it’s that we rarely have universal answers.

    This can, admittedly, be frustrating. But science is incredibly nuanced. Most studies are done on very specific subsets of populations - for example, 20 post-menopausal women who have arthritis. The issue is - how do you take a conclusion from such a group and apply it to the population?

    This is what makes us reliable - we don’t claim to have the single solution for you. Instead, we simply offer you what the science tells us, and help you make the best decision for you.



    We have an editorial policy that outlines our approach to creating content and fixing any errors.