This page features 103 unique references to scientific papers.

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Frequently asked questions and answers related to Protein


  1. Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes . Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000)
  2. Beasley JM, et al Higher biomarker-calibrated protein intake is not associated with impaired renal function in postmenopausal women . J Nutr. (2011)
  3. Knight EL, et al The impact of protein intake on renal function decline in women with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency . Ann Intern Med. (2003)
  4. Brändle E, Sieberth HG, Hautmann RE Effect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjects . Eur J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  5. King AJ, Levey AS Dietary protein and renal function . J Am Soc Nephrol. (1993)
  6. Dietary protein intake and renal function
  7. Wakefield AP, et al A diet with 35% of energy from protein leads to kidney damage in female Sprague-Dawley rats . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  8. Aparicio VA, et al Effects of high-whey-protein intake and resistance training on renal, bone and metabolic parameters in rats . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  9. Frank H, et al Effect of short-term high-protein compared with normal-protein diets on renal hemodynamics and associated variables in healthy young men . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  10. Wiegmann TB, et al Controlled changes in chronic dietary protein intake do not change glomerular filtration rate . Am J Kidney Dis. (1990)
  11. Levey AS, et al Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of advanced renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study . Am J Kidney Dis. (1996)
  12. [No authors listed Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of moderate renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study . J Am Soc Nephrol. (1996)
  13. Merli M, Riggio O Dietary and nutritional indications in hepatic encephalopathy . Metab Brain Dis. (2009)
  14. Starr SP, Raines D Cirrhosis: diagnosis, management, and prevention . Am Fam Physician. (2011)
  15. Ong JP, et al Correlation between ammonia levels and the severity of hepatic encephalopathy . Am J Med. (2003)
  16. Caballero VJ, et al Alternation between dietary protein depletion and normal feeding cause liver damage in mouse . J Physiol Biochem. (2011)
  17. Oarada M, et al Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  18. Sogawa N, et al The changes of hepatic metallothionein synthesis and the hepatic damage induced by starvation in mice . Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (2003)
  19. Hepatocellular Injuries Observed in Patients with an Eating Disorder Prior to Nutritional Treatment
  20. Madhavan TV, Gopalan C The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin . Arch Pathol. (1968)
  21. Appleton BS, Campbell TC Effect of high and low dietary protein on the dosing and postdosing periods of aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic preneoplastic lesion development in the rat . Cancer Res. (1983)
  22. Mandel HG, Judah DJ, Neal GE Effect of dietary protein level on aflatoxin B1 actions in the liver of weanling rats . Carcinogenesis. (1992)
  23. Blanck A, et al Influence of different levels of dietary casein on initiation of male rat liver carcinogenesis with a single dose of aflatoxin B1 . Carcinogenesis. (1992)
  24. Hornsby LB, Hester EK, Donaldson AR Potential interaction between warfarin and high dietary protein intake . Pharmacotherapy. (2008)
  25. Bolter CP, Critz JB Plasma enzyme activities in rats with diet-induced alterations in liver enzyme activities . Experientia. (1974)
  26. Dargent-Molina P, et al Proteins, dietary acid load, and calcium and risk of postmenopausal fractures in the E3N French women prospective study . J Bone Miner Res. (2008)
  27. Calvez J, et al Protein intake, calcium balance and health consequences . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  28. High-Protein Weight Loss Diets and Purported Adverse Effects: Where is the Evidence?
  29. Thorpe M, et al A positive association of lumbar spine bone mineral density with dietary protein is suppressed by a negative association with protein sulfur . J Nutr. (2008)
  30. Zhang X, et al Prospective cohort study of soy food consumption and risk of bone fracture among postmenopausal women . Arch Intern Med. (2005)
  31. von Herrath D, et al Glomerular filtration rate in response to an acute protein load . Blood Purif. (1988)
  32. Bosch JP, et al Renal functional reserve in humans. Effect of protein intake on glomerular filtration rate . Am J Med. (1983)
  33. Skelton LA, Boron WF, Zhou Y Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule . J Nephrol. (2010)
  34. Yaqoob MM Acidosis and progression of chronic kidney disease . Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. (2010)
  35. Kraut JA, Madias NE Consequences and therapy of the metabolic acidosis of chronic kidney disease . Pediatr Nephrol. (2011)
  36. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  37. Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic
  38. Golay A, et al Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets . Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  39. Leibel RL, et al Energy intake required to maintain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition . Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  40. Golay A, et al Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
  41. Sargrad KR, et al Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  42. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes . Diabetes Care. (1999)
  43. Parker B, et al Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes . Diabetes Care. (2002)
  44. Noakes M, et al Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women . Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  45. Keogh JB, et al Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women . Br J Nutr. (2007)
  46. Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids . Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  47. Farnsworth E, et al Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women . Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  48. Brinkworth GD, et al Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  49. Golay A, et al Similar weight loss with low-energy food combining or balanced diets . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
  50. Thomson RL, et al The effect of a hypocaloric diet with and without exercise training on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, and reproductive function in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  51. Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss . Ann Nutr Metab. (2007)
  52. McLaughlin T, et al Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults . Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  53. Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss . Lancet. (2004)
  54. Boden G, et al Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes . Ann Intern Med. (2005)
  55. Bray GA, et al Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial . JAMA. (2012)
  56. Effects of macronutrient composition of the diet on body fat in indigenous people at high risk of type 2 diabetes
  57. Rehan N, Sobrero AJ, Fertig JW The semen of fertile men: statistical analysis of 1300 men . Fertil Steril. (1975)
  58. HARVEY C Relation between the volume and fructose content of human semen . Nature. (1948)
  59. Relation Between Fructose Content of Semen and Fertility in Man
  60. Haendler Y A rare case of secondary infertility in a man of 27 years due to lack of fructose in the semen . Minerva Ginecol. (1965)
  61. Fructolysis in Human Spermatozoa under normal and pathological conditions
  62. A Review of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Human Semen and the Formulation of a Semen Simulant
  63. The Biochemistry of Semen {E-book}
  64. Chang A, Shin SH Dopamine agonists both stimulate and inhibit prolactin release in GH4ZR7 cells . Eur J Endocrinol. (1999)
  65. Ben-Jonathan N, Hnasko R Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor . Endocr Rev. (2001)
  66. D'Aniello G, et al Occurrence of D-aspartic acid in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa: possible role in reproduction . Fertil Steril. (2005)
  67. Haldar S, et al Influence of habitual diet on antioxidant status: a study in a population of vegetarians and omnivores . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  68. Szeto YT, Kwok TC, Benzie IF Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk . Nutrition. (2004)
  69. Kanďár R, Drábková P, Hampl R The determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection . J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2011)
  70. Gavella M, et al Evaluation of ascorbate and urate antioxidant capacity in human semen . Andrologia. (1997)
  71. Rosecrans RR, et al Comparison of biochemical parameters of human blood serum and seminal plasma . Andrologia. (1987)
  72. Persson BE, et al Uridine, xanthine and urate concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma of patients with prostatitis . Eur Urol. (1991)
  73. Tepper BJ, et al Genetic variation in bitter taste and plasma markers of anti-oxidant status in college women . Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2009)
  74. Dsamou M, et al Salivary protein profiles and sensitivity to the bitter taste of caffeine . Chem Senses. (2012)
  75. Naz S, et al Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits lactase but is alleviated by salivary proline-rich proteins . J Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  76. Raederstorff DG, et al Effect of EGCG on lipid absorption and plasma lipid levels in rats . J Nutr Biochem. (2003)
  77. Zhong L, Furne JK, Levitt MD An extract of black, green, and mulberry teas causes malabsorption of carbohydrate but not of triacylglycerol in healthy volunteers . Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  78. How much protein do I need?
  79. Campbell WW, et al The recommended dietary allowance for protein may not be adequate for older people to maintain skeletal muscle . J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2001)
  80. Phillips SM Protein requirements and supplementation in strength sports . Nutrition. (2004)
  81. Lemon PW, Proctor DN Protein intake and athletic performance . Sports Med. (1991)
  82. Lemon PW Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals . J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  83. Tipton KD, Wolfe RR Protein and amino acids for athletes . J Sports Sci. (2004)
  84. Campbell B, et al International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2007)
  85. Rodriguez NR, DiMarco NM, Langley S; American Dietetic Association; Dietetians of Canada; American College of Sports Medicine Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance . J Am Diet Assoc. (2009)
  86. Wilson J, Wilson GJ Contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2006)
  87. Jeevanandam M, et al Influence of increasing dietary intake on whole body protein kinetics in normal man . Clin Nutr. (1986)
  88. Leidy HJ, et al Higher protein intake preserves lean mass and satiety with weight loss in pre-obese and obese women . Obesity (Silver Spring). (2007)
  89. Mettler S, Mitchell N, Tipton KD Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2010)
  90. Layman DK, et al Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women . J Nutr. (2005)
  91. Pikosky MA, et al Increased protein maintains nitrogen balance during exercise-induced energy deficit . Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2008)
  92. Jakobsen LH, et al Effect of a high protein meat diet on muscle and cognitive functions: a randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men . Clin Nutr. (2011)
  93. Evans EM, et al Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial . Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  94. Bopp MJ, et al Lean mass loss is associated with low protein intake during dietary-induced weight loss in postmenopausal women . J Am Diet Assoc. (2008)
  95. Mojtahedi MC, et al The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women . J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2011)
  96. Gordon MM, et al Effects of dietary protein on the composition of weight loss in post-menopausal women . J Nutr Health Aging. (2008)
  97. Treyzon L, et al A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass . Nutr J. (2008)
  98. Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol . Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
  99. Josse AR, et al Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women . J Nutr. (2011)
  100. Labayen I, et al Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate-rich diets on fuel utilisation in obese women during weight loss . Forum Nutr. (2003)
  101. de Souza RJ, et al Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial . Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  102. Loenneke JP, et al Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat . Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  103. Loenneke JP, et al Short report: Relationship between quality protein, lean mass and bone health . Ann Nutr Metab. (2010)

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