This page features 120 unique references to scientific papers.

MUST GET: Supplement Stack Guides - Saving You Money & Time

Frequently asked questions and answers related to Diet


  1. Harris RC, Söderlund K, Hultman E Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation . Clin Sci (Lond). (1992)
  2. Diet and Refsum's disease. The determination of phytanic acid and phytol in certain foods and the application of this knowledge to the choice of suitable convenience foods for patients with Refsum's disease
  3. Rawson ES, et al Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults . Physiol Behav. (2008)
  4. Benton D, Donohoe R The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  5. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas–liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids
  6. Maersk M, et al Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study . Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  7. Tate DF, et al Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial . Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  8. Wang YC, et al Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents . Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. (2009)
  9. Chen L, et al Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  10. Davidson TL, Swithers SE A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  11. Spiers PA, et al Aspartame: neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic evaluation of acute and chronic effects . Am J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  12. Ford HE, et al Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  13. Ma J, et al Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects . Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2009)
  14. Anton SD, et al Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels . Appetite. (2010)
  15. Steinert RE, et al Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  16. Møller SE Effect of aspartame and protein, administered in phenylalanine-equivalent doses, on plasma neutral amino acids, aspartate, insulin and glucose in man . Pharmacol Toxicol. (1991)
  17. Wolf-Novak LC, et al Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin . Metabolism. (1990)
  18. Horwitz DL, McLane M, Kobe P Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients . Diabetes Care. (1988)
  19. Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men . Physiol Behav. (1995)
  20. Malaisse WJ, et al Effects of artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in rat pancreatic islets . Cell Signal. (1998)
  21. Andrew G. Renwicka,Samuel V. Molinarya Sweet-taste receptors, low-energy sweeteners, glucose absorption and insulin release . British Journal of Nutrition. (2010)
  22. Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes . Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000)
  23. Beasley JM, et al Higher biomarker-calibrated protein intake is not associated with impaired renal function in postmenopausal women . J Nutr. (2011)
  24. Knight EL, et al The impact of protein intake on renal function decline in women with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency . Ann Intern Med. (2003)
  25. Brändle E, Sieberth HG, Hautmann RE Effect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjects . Eur J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  26. King AJ, Levey AS Dietary protein and renal function . J Am Soc Nephrol. (1993)
  27. Dietary protein intake and renal function
  28. Wakefield AP, et al A diet with 35% of energy from protein leads to kidney damage in female Sprague-Dawley rats . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  29. Aparicio VA, et al Effects of high-whey-protein intake and resistance training on renal, bone and metabolic parameters in rats . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  30. Frank H, et al Effect of short-term high-protein compared with normal-protein diets on renal hemodynamics and associated variables in healthy young men . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  31. Wiegmann TB, et al Controlled changes in chronic dietary protein intake do not change glomerular filtration rate . Am J Kidney Dis. (1990)
  32. Levey AS, et al Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of advanced renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study . Am J Kidney Dis. (1996)
  33. [No authors listed Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of moderate renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study . J Am Soc Nephrol. (1996)
  34. Merli M, Riggio O Dietary and nutritional indications in hepatic encephalopathy . Metab Brain Dis. (2009)
  35. Starr SP, Raines D Cirrhosis: diagnosis, management, and prevention . Am Fam Physician. (2011)
  36. Ong JP, et al Correlation between ammonia levels and the severity of hepatic encephalopathy . Am J Med. (2003)
  37. Caballero VJ, et al Alternation between dietary protein depletion and normal feeding cause liver damage in mouse . J Physiol Biochem. (2011)
  38. Oarada M, et al Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  39. Sogawa N, et al The changes of hepatic metallothionein synthesis and the hepatic damage induced by starvation in mice . Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (2003)
  40. Hepatocellular Injuries Observed in Patients with an Eating Disorder Prior to Nutritional Treatment
  41. Madhavan TV, Gopalan C The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin . Arch Pathol. (1968)
  42. Appleton BS, Campbell TC Effect of high and low dietary protein on the dosing and postdosing periods of aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic preneoplastic lesion development in the rat . Cancer Res. (1983)
  43. Mandel HG, Judah DJ, Neal GE Effect of dietary protein level on aflatoxin B1 actions in the liver of weanling rats . Carcinogenesis. (1992)
  44. Blanck A, et al Influence of different levels of dietary casein on initiation of male rat liver carcinogenesis with a single dose of aflatoxin B1 . Carcinogenesis. (1992)
  45. Hornsby LB, Hester EK, Donaldson AR Potential interaction between warfarin and high dietary protein intake . Pharmacotherapy. (2008)
  46. Bolter CP, Critz JB Plasma enzyme activities in rats with diet-induced alterations in liver enzyme activities . Experientia. (1974)
  47. Dargent-Molina P, et al Proteins, dietary acid load, and calcium and risk of postmenopausal fractures in the E3N French women prospective study . J Bone Miner Res. (2008)
  48. Calvez J, et al Protein intake, calcium balance and health consequences . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  49. High-Protein Weight Loss Diets and Purported Adverse Effects: Where is the Evidence?
  50. Thorpe M, et al A positive association of lumbar spine bone mineral density with dietary protein is suppressed by a negative association with protein sulfur . J Nutr. (2008)
  51. Zhang X, et al Prospective cohort study of soy food consumption and risk of bone fracture among postmenopausal women . Arch Intern Med. (2005)
  52. von Herrath D, et al Glomerular filtration rate in response to an acute protein load . Blood Purif. (1988)
  53. Bosch JP, et al Renal functional reserve in humans. Effect of protein intake on glomerular filtration rate . Am J Med. (1983)
  54. Skelton LA, Boron WF, Zhou Y Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule . J Nephrol. (2010)
  55. Yaqoob MM Acidosis and progression of chronic kidney disease . Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. (2010)
  56. Kraut JA, Madias NE Consequences and therapy of the metabolic acidosis of chronic kidney disease . Pediatr Nephrol. (2011)
  57. Passman CM, et al Effect of soda consumption on urinary stone risk parameters . J Endourol. (2009)
  58. Nettleton JA, et al Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) . Diabetes Care. (2009)
  59. Dhingra R, et al Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community . Circulation. (2007)
  60. Gardener H, et al Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with an Increased Risk of Vascular Events in the Northern Manhattan Study . J Gen Intern Med. (2012)
  61. Kaplowitz GJ An update on the dangers of soda pop . Dent Assist. (2011)
  62. Cheng R, et al Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review . J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2009)
  63. Shenkin JD, et al Soft drink consumption and caries risk in children and adolescents . Gen Dent. (2003)
  64. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  65. Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic
  66. Golay A, et al Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets . Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  67. Leibel RL, et al Energy intake required to maintain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition . Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  68. Golay A, et al Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
  69. Sargrad KR, et al Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  70. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes . Diabetes Care. (1999)
  71. Parker B, et al Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes . Diabetes Care. (2002)
  72. Noakes M, et al Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women . Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  73. Keogh JB, et al Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women . Br J Nutr. (2007)
  74. Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids . Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  75. Farnsworth E, et al Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women . Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  76. Brinkworth GD, et al Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  77. Golay A, et al Similar weight loss with low-energy food combining or balanced diets . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
  78. Thomson RL, et al The effect of a hypocaloric diet with and without exercise training on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, and reproductive function in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  79. Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss . Ann Nutr Metab. (2007)
  80. McLaughlin T, et al Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults . Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  81. Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss . Lancet. (2004)
  82. Boden G, et al Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes . Ann Intern Med. (2005)
  83. Bray GA, et al Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial . JAMA. (2012)
  84. Al-Hourani HM, Atoum MF Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan . Singapore Med J. (2007)
  85. Sensi S, Capani F Chronobiological aspects of weight loss in obesity: effects of different meal timing regimens . Chronobiol Int. (1987)
  86. Nonino-Borges CB, et al Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women . Nutrition. (2007)
  87. Keim NL, et al Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen . J Nutr. (1997)
  88. Sofer S, et al Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner . Obesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  89. Schlundt DG, et al The role of breakfast in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial . Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  90. Evaluation of Consumer Complaints Related to Aspartame Use
  91. Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive . Environ Health Perspect. (1987)
  92. Kühn R, Graner H, Soukup P {Experiences in the expert evaluation of nucleus pulposus prolapse} . Beitr Orthop Traumatol. (1975)
  93. Aspartame ingestion and headaches
  94. Levy PS, Hedeker D, Sanders PG Aspartame and headache . Neurology. (1995)
  95. Roberts HJ Aspartame and headache . Neurology. (1995)
  96. Schiffman S Aspartame and headache . Neurology. (1995)
  97. Newman LC, Lipton RB Migraine MLT-down: an unusual presentation of migraine in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches . Headache. (2001)
  98. Pisarik P, Kai D Vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings 15 years apart secondary to aspartame: two case reports . Cases J. (2009)
  99. Storey ML, Forshee RA, Anderson PA Beverage consumption in the US population . J Am Diet Assoc. (2006)
  100. Stellman SD, Garfinkel L Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change among women . Prev Med. (1986)
  101. Fowler SP, et al Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain . Obesity (Silver Spring). (2008)
  102. Mattes RD, Popkin BM Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  103. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-62 through 2005-2006
  104. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings
  105. Colditz GA, et al Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women . Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  106. Evaluation of the influence of intense sweeteners on the short-term control of appetite and caloric intake: a psychobiological approach
  107. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE Intense sweeteners and appetite . Am J Clin Nutr. (1993)
  108. Hall WL, et al Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety . Physiol Behav. (2003)
  109. Okuno G, et al Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics . Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (1986)
  110. Just T, et al Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation . Appetite. (2008)
  111. Oyama Y, et al Carrier-mediated transport systems for glucose in mucosal cells of the human oral cavity . J Pharm Sci. (1999)
  112. Carlson HE, Shah JH Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans . Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
  113. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects . Physiol Behav. (1994)
  114. Porikos KP, Booth G, Van Itallie TB Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study . Am J Clin Nutr. (1977)
  115. Williams CL, Strobino BA, Brotanek J Weight control among obese adolescents: a pilot study . Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2007)
  116. Knopp RH, Brandt K, Arky RA Effects of aspartame in young persons during weight reduction . J Toxicol Environ Health. (1976)
  117. Ebbeling CB, et al Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study . Pediatrics. (2006)
  118. Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth . Int J Pediatr Obes. (2010)
  119. Swithers SE, Davidson TL A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats . Behav Neurosci. (2008)
  120. Ambrus JL, et al Effect of galactose and sugar substitutes on blood insulin levels in normal and obese individuals . J Med. (1976)