Range of Motion

   

    In Progress

    This page on Range of Motion is currently marked as in-progress. We are still compiling research.

    You can help contribute by:



    Scientific Information on Range of Motion

    Follow this Page for updates

    Confused about Supplements?
    Get the Stack Guides

    The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what what supplements affect Range of Motion
    GradeLevel of Evidence
    ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
    BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
    CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
    DUncontrolled or observational studies only
    Level of Evidence
    SupplementChange
    Magnitude of Effect Size
    Scientific ConsensusComments
    CHMB
    Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

    All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
    CGlucosamine
    DCreatine

    References

    1. Beis LY, et al. The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2011)
    2. Rahimi R. Creatine supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
    3. Lamontagne-Lacasse M, Nadon R, Goulet ED. Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Jumping Performance in Elite Volleyball Players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. (2011)
    4. Del Favero S, et al. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. Amino Acids. (2011)
    5. Freilinger M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation in Rett syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Dev Behav Pediatr. (2011)
    6. Neves M Jr, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on measured glomerular filtration rate in postmenopausal women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2011)
    7. Candow DG, et al. Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
    8. Fumagalli S, et al. Coenzyme Q10 terclatrate and creatine in chronic heart failure: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Clin Cardiol. (2011)
    9. Cook CJ, et al. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2011)
    10. Neves M Jr, et al. Beneficial effect of creatine supplementation in knee osteoarthritis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2011)
    11. Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, et al. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011)
    12. Lee CL, Lin JC, Cheng CF. Effect of caffeine ingestion after creatine supplementation on intermittent high-intensity sprint performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011)
    13. Benton D, Donohoe R. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores. Br J Nutr. (2011)
    14. Camic CL, et al. The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength and power. J Strength Cond Res. (2010)
    15. Gualano B, et al. Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011)
    16. Gualano B, et al. Creatine in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2011)
    17. Sculthorpe N, et al. The effect of short-term creatine loading on active range of movement. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2010)
    18. Kingsley M, et al. Role of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced cardiovascular function and oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. (2009)
    19. Rawson ES, et al. Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain. Nutrition. (2011)
    20. Fukuda DH, et al. The possible combinatory effects of acute consumption of caffeine, creatine, and amino acids on the improvement of anaerobic running performance in humans. Nutr Res. (2010)
    21. Fukuda DH, et al. The effects of creatine loading and gender on anaerobic running capacity. J Strength Cond Res. (2010)
    22. Al-Ghimlas F, Todd DC. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. (2010)
    23. van der Merwe J, Brooks NE, Myburgh KH. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin J Sport Med. (2009)
    24. Banerjee B, et al. Effect of creatine monohydrate in improving cellular energetics and muscle strength in ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled 31P MRS study. Magn Reson Imaging. (2010)
    25. Bemben MG, et al. The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. J Nutr Health Aging. (2010)
    26. Gualano B, et al. Effect of short-term high-dose creatine supplementation on measured GFR in a young man with a single kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. (2010)
    27. Bassit RA, et al. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of skeletal muscle damage after strenuous contractile activity. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2010)
    28. Graef JL, et al. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2009)
    29. Bogdanis GC, et al. Recovery of power output and muscle metabolites following 30 s of maximal sprint cycling in man. J Physiol. (1995)
    30. Kerksick CM, et al. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations. J Strength Cond Res. (2009)
    31. Bazzucchi I, Felici F, Sacchetti M. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on neuromuscular function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2009)
    32. Juhász I, et al. Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers. Acta Physiol Hung. (2009)
    33. Kendall KL, et al. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men. J Strength Cond Res. (2009)
    34. Cooke MB, et al. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2009)
    35. Cornish SM, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2009)
    36. Herda TJ, et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate and polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength, endurance, and power output. J Strength Cond Res. (2009)
    37. Law YL, et al. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. (2009)
    38. Lopez RM, et al. Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. J Athl Train. (2009)
    39. Sakkas GK, et al. Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PLoS One. (2009)
    40. Spillane M, et al. The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2009)
    41. Johnston AP, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance. J Strength Cond Res. (2009)
    42. Little JP, et al. Creatine, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides and endurance and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2008)
    43. Gualano B, et al. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2008)
    44. Hadjicharalambous M, Kilduff LP, Pitsiladis YP. Brain serotonin and dopamine modulators, perceptual responses and endurance performance during exercise in the heat following creatine supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2008)
    45. Cancela P, et al. Creatine supplementation does not affect clinical health markers in football players. Br J Sports Med. (2008)
    46. Burke DG, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2008)
    47. Candow DG, et al. Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2008)
    48. Rawson ES, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav. (2008)
    49. Koenig CA, et al. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2008)
    50. Walter AA, et al. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold in cycle ergometry in college-age men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2008)
    51. Deacon SJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2008)
    52. Eckerson JM, Bull AA, Moore GA. Effect of thirty days of creatine supplementation with phosphate salts on anaerobic working capacity and body weight in men. J Strength Cond Res. (2008)
    53. Eliot KA, et al. The effects of creatine and whey protein supplementation on body composition in men aged 48 to 72 years during resistance training. J Nutr Health Aging. (2008)
    54. Jäger R, et al. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2008)
    55. Gualano B, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2008)
    56. Brault JJ, et al. Parallel increases in phosphocreatine and total creatine in human vastus lateralis muscle during creatine supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2007)
    57. Rawson ES, Conti MP, Miles MP. Creatine supplementation does not reduce muscle damage or enhance recovery from resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. (2007)
    58. Chilibeck PD, Magnus C, Anderson M. Effect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football players. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2007)
    59. Faager G, et al. Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. (2006)
    60. Smith AE, et al. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2007)
    61. Roitman S, et al. Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Bipolar Disord. (2007)
    62. Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Hayes A. A creatine-protein-carbohydrate supplement enhances responses to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2007)
    63. Stout JR, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue threshold and muscle strength in elderly men and women (64 - 86 years). J Nutr Health Aging. (2007)
    64. Gotshalk LA, et al. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2008)
    65. McMorris T, et al. Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. (2007)
    66. Cancela P, et al. Creatine supplementation does not affect clinical health markers in soccer players. Br J Sports Med. (2007)
    67. Wright GA, Grandjean PW, Pascoe DD. The effects of creatine loading on thermoregulation and intermittent sprint exercise performance in a hot humid environment. J Strength Cond Res. (2007)
    68. Cramer JT, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation and three days of resistance training on muscle strength, power output, and neuromuscular function. J Strength Cond Res. (2007)
    69. Kaptsan A, et al. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. (2007)
    70. Kilduff LP, et al. Reliability and detecting change following short-term creatine supplementation: comparison of two-component body composition methods. J Strength Cond Res. (2007)
    71. Easton C, Turner S, Pitsiladis YP. Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2007)
    72. Armentano MJ, et al. The effect and safety of short-term creatine supplementation on performance of push-ups. Mil Med. (2007)
    73. Gualano B, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino Acids. (2008)
    74. Silva AJ, et al. Effect of creatine on swimming velocity, body composition and hydrodynamic variables. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2007)
    75. Beck TW, et al. Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2007)
    76. Branch JD, Schwarz WD, Van Lunen B. Effect of creatine supplementation on cycle ergometer exercise in a hyperthermic environment. J Strength Cond Res. (2007)
    77. Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JL. Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. (2007)
    78. Cribb PJ, et al. Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2007)
    79. Stout JR, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res. (2006)
    80. Ferguson TB, Syrotuik DG. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on body composition and strength indices in experienced resistance trained women. J Strength Cond Res. (2006)
    81. Pan JW, Takahashi K. Cerebral energetic effects of creatine supplementation in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2007)
    82. Hoffman J, et al. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2006)
    83. Weiss BA, Powers ME. Creatine supplementation does not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2006)
    84. Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2006)
    85. McMorris T, et al. Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior. Physiol Behav. (2007)
    86. Bender A, et al. Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology. (2006)
    87. Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino Acids. (2007)
    88. Reardon TF, et al. Creatine supplementation does not enhance submaximal aerobic training adaptations in healthy young men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2006)
    89. Pluim BM, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br J Sports Med. (2006)
    90. Norman K, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on nutritional status, muscle function and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer--a double blind randomised controlled trial. Clin Nutr. (2006)
    91. Glaister M, et al. Creatine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2006)
    92. Watson G, et al. Creatine use and exercise heat tolerance in dehydrated men. J Athl Train. (2006)
    93. Netreba I, et al. Creatine as a metabolic controller of skeletal muscles structure and function in strength exercises in humans. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. (2006)
    94. Kuethe F, et al. Creatine supplementation improves muscle strength in patients with congestive heart failure. Pharmazie. (2006)
    95. Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on sprint skating in ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2006)
    96. Olsen S, et al. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. J Physiol. (2006)
    97. Cañete S, et al. Does creatine supplementation improve functional capacity in elderly women. J Strength Cond Res. (2006)
    98. Shi D. Oligosaccharide and creatine supplementation on glucose and urea nitrogen in blood and serum creatine kinase in basketball athletes. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. (2005)
    99. Okudan N, Gokbel H. The effects of creatine supplementation on performance during the repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2005)
    100. McMorris T, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2006)
    101. Peyrebrune MC, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on training for competition in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2005)
    102. McConell GK, et al. Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2005)
    103. Eckerson JM, et al. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength Cond Res. (2005)
    104. Poortmans JR, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on urinary methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2005)
    105. Murphy AJ, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on aerobic power and cardiovascular structure and function. J Sci Med Sport. (2005)
    106. Carter JM, et al. Does nutritional supplementation influence adaptability of muscle to resistance training in men aged 48 to 72 years. J Geriatr Phys Ther. (2005)
    107. Chilibeck PD, et al. Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men. J Nutr Health Aging. (2005)
    108. Perret C, Mueller G, Knecht H. Influence of creatine supplementation on 800 m wheelchair performance: a pilot study. Spinal Cord. (2006)
    109. Anomasiri W, Sanguanrungsirikul S, Saichandee P. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance. J Med Assoc Thai. (2004)
    110. Roy BD, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not improve functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. (2005)
    111. Fuld JP, et al. Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. (2005)
    112. Javierre C, et al. Creatine supplementation and performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter sprints. J Physiol Biochem. (2004)
    113. Theodorou AS, et al. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. (2005)
    114. Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of low-dose, short-duration creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2005)
    115. Deldicque L, et al. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2005)
    116. Ahmun RP, Tong RJ, Grimshaw PN. The effects of acute creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycling and running performance in rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. (2005)
    117. Watt KK, Garnham AP, Snow RJ. Skeletal muscle total creatine content and creatine transporter gene expression in vegetarians prior to and following creatine supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2004)
    118. Bender A, et al. Creatine supplementation lowers brain glutamate levels in Huntington's disease. J Neurol. (2005)
    119. Chilibeck PD, et al. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2004)
    120. Taes YE, et al. Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. (2004)
    121. Shefner JM, et al. A clinical trial of creatine in ALS. Neurology. (2004)
    122. Kilduff LP, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat in endurance-trained humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2004)
    123. Braegger CP, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation in cystic fibrosis: results of a pilot study. J Cyst Fibros. (2003)
    124. Mendes RR, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers. J Nutr Biochem. (2004)
    125. Santos RV, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race. Life Sci. (2004)
    126. Korzun WJ. Oral creatine supplements lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in humans. Clin Lab Sci. (2004)
    127. Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology. (2004)
    128. Selsby JT, DiSilvestro RA, Devor ST. Mg2+-creatine chelate and a low-dose creatine supplementation regimen improve exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2004)
    129. Mero AA, et al. Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming. J Strength Cond Res. (2004)
    130. Chromiak JA, et al. Effect of a 10-week strength training program and recovery drink on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power and capacity. Nutrition. (2004)
    131. Eckerson JM, et al. Effect of two and five days of creatine loading on anaerobic working capacity in women. J Strength Cond Res. (2004)
    132. Kilduff LP, et al. Effects of creatine on body composition and strength gains after 4 weeks of resistance training in previously nonresistance-trained humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003)
    133. Koçak S, Karli U. Effects of high dose oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2003)
    134. Ayoama R, Hiruma E, Sasaki H. Effects of creatine loading on muscular strength and endurance of female softball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2003)
    135. Volek JS, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2004)
    136. Kutz MR, Gunter MJ. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat. J Strength Cond Res. (2003)
    137. Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2003)
    138. Havenetidis K, Bourdas D. Creatine supplementation: effects on urinary excretion and anaerobic performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2003)
    139. Burke DG, et al. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2003)
    140. Kinugasa R, et al. Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2004)
    141. Rae C, et al. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc Biol Sci. (2003)
    142. Verbessem P, et al. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Neurology. (2003)
    143. van Loon LJ, et al. Creatine supplementation increases glycogen storage but not GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle. Clin Sci (Lond). (2004)
    144. Brilla LR, et al. Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water. Metabolism. (2003)
    145. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003)
    146. Groeneveld GJ, et al. Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial. Int J Sports Med. (2005)
    147. Lyoo IK, et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder. Am J Psychiatry. (2012)
    148. Kondo DG, et al. Open-label adjunctive creatine for female adolescents with SSRI-resistant major depressive disorder: a 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Affect Disord. (2011)
    149. Saremi A, et al. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. (2010)
    150. Sakellaris G, et al. Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. A pilot study. Acta Paediatr. (2008)
    151. Schedel JM, et al. Acute creatine loading enhances human growth hormone secretion. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2000)
    152. Rooney KB, et al. Creatine supplementation affects glucose homeostasis but not insulin secretion in humans. Ann Nutr Metab. (2003)
    153. Antonio J, Ciccone V. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2013)
    154. Dabidi Roshan V, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on muscle fatigue and physiological indices following intermittent swimming bouts. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2013)
    155. Burke LM, Pyne DB, Telford RD. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. (1996)
    156. Dawson B, Vladich T, Blanksby BA. Effects of 4 weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance. J Strength Cond Res. (2002)
    157. Selsby JT, et al. Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. J Strength Cond Res. (2003)
    158. Mujika I, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (1996)
    159. Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int J Sport Nutr. (1999)
    160. Theodorou AS, et al. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J Sports Sci. (1999)
    161. Hespel P, et al. Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. J Physiol. (2001)
    162. Walter MC, et al. Creatine monohydrate in myotonic dystrophy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Neurol. (2002)
    163. Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology. (1999)
    164. Tarnopolsky M, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Muscle Nerve. (2004)
    165. Schneider-Gold C, et al. Creatine monohydrate in DM2/PROMM: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Proximal myotonic myopathy. Neurology. (2003)
    166. Vorgerd M, et al. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Arch Neurol. (2000)
    167. Vorgerd M, et al. Effect of high-dose creatine therapy on symptoms of exercise intolerance in McArdle disease: double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arch Neurol. (2002)
    168. Borchert A, Wilichowski E, Hanefeld F. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate in children with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Muscle Nerve. (1999)
    169. Mazzini L, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results. J Neurol Sci. (2001)
    170. Drory VE, Gross D. No effect of creatine on respiratory distress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. (2002)
    171. Groeneveld GJ, et al. A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol. (2003)
    172. Rosenfeld J, et al. Creatine monohydrate in ALS: effects on strength, fatigue, respiratory status and ALSFRS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. (2008)
    173. Pastula DM, Moore DH, Bedlack RS. Creatine for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2012)
    174. Op 't Eijnde B, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. Diabetes. (2001)
    175. Mayhew DL, Mayhew JL, Ware JS. Effects of long-term creatine supplementation on liver and kidney functions in American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2002)
    176. Schilling BK, et al. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2001)
    177. Deminice R, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after repeated-sprint exercise in humans. Nutrition. (2013)
    178. Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Muscle Nerve. (1997)
    179. Kornblum C, et al. Creatine has no beneficial effect on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with single mitochondrial DNA deletions: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 31P-MRS crossover study. Eur J Neurol. (2005)
    180. Thompson CH, et al. Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers. Br J Sports Med. (1996)
    181. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Lond). (1996)
    182. Watanabe A, Kato N, Kato T. Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci Res. (2002)
    183. Smith AE, et al. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power. Int J Sports Med. (2011)
    184. Volek JS, et al. Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2001)
    185. Nelson AG, et al. Muscle glycogen supercompensation is enhanced by prior creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2001)
    186. Robinson TM, et al. Role of submaximal exercise in promoting creatine and glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). (1999)
    187. van Loon LJ, et al. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond). (2003)
    188. Manjarrez-Montes de Oca R, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation in taekwondo practitioners. Nutr Hosp. (2013)

    (Users who contributed to this page include AccrualGamer, futureshockk, montavon, Task_Master, shrillthrill, edozp, raine, dbarvinok)