Muscle Soreness

Muscle soreness refers to the percieved soreness or tender state of muscle tissue following physical exercise, usually manifesting after a short delay (and hence its common name of 'delayed onset muscle soreness' or DOMS).

This page features 23 unique references to scientific papers.

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Also Known As

Delayed onset muscle soreness, DOMS

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what supplements affect Muscle Soreness
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
B Fish Oil
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
C Citrulline
C Bromelain
C Ginger
C Green Tea Catechins
C L-Carnitine
C Leucic Acid
C Methylsulfonylmethane
C Theaflavins
C Vitamin C
C Anatabine
C Blueberry
C Branched Chain Amino Acids
C Phosphatidylserine
C Taurine
C Trimethylglycine


  1. Miglio F, et al Efficacy and safety of oral betaine glucuronate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled prospective clinical study . Arzneimittelforschung. (2000)
  2. Apicella JM, et al Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise . Eur J Appl Physiol. (2013)
  3. López-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Rodriguez-Aguado C Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of a betaine-containing mouthwash and an intraoral device for the treatment of dry mouth . J Oral Pathol Med. (2012)
  4. Ship JA, et al Safety and effectiveness of topical dry mouth products containing olive oil, betaine, and xylitol in reducing xerostomia for polypharmacy-induced dry mouth . J Oral Rehabil. (2007)
  5. Söderling E, et al Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth . Acta Odontol Scand. (1998)
  6. Rantanen I, et al Effects of a betaine-containing toothpaste on subjective symptoms of dry mouth: a randomized clinical trial . J Contemp Dent Pract. (2003)
  7. Alfthan G, et al The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers . Br J Nutr. (2004)
  8. Steenge GR, Verhoef P, Katan MB Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women . J Nutr. (2003)
  9. Schwab U, et al Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects . Am J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  10. Brouwer IA, Verhoef P, Urgert R Betaine supplementation and plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers . Arch Intern Med. (2000)
  11. Trepanowski JF, et al The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men . J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  12. Hoffman JR, et al Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise . J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  13. Hoffman JR, et al Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2009)
  14. Lee EC, et al Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2010)
  15. Pryor JL, Craig SA, Swensen T Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2012)
  16. Del Favero S, et al Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance . Amino Acids. (2011)
  17. Abdelmalek MF, et al Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study . Am J Gastroenterol. (2001)
  18. Abdelmalek MF, et al Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial . Hepatology. (2009)
  19. Schwab U, et al Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans . J Nutr. (2006)
  20. Armstrong LE, et al Influence of betaine consumption on strenuous running and sprinting in a hot environment . J Strength Cond Res. (2008)
  21. Atkinson W, et al Dietary and supplementary betaine: effects on betaine and homocysteine concentrations in males . Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
  22. Schwab U, et al Long-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  23. Olthof MR, et al Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans . PLoS Med. (2005)

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