Muscle Damage

Muscle damage refers to the breaking of muscle tissue during exercise, and is approximately by measuring some biomarkers in the blood released by damaged muscle (such as creatine kinase). Reducing muscle damage may alleviate soreness from exercise.

This page features 59 unique references to scientific papers.

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what supplements affect Muscle Damage
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
B Creatine
B L-Carnitine
B Vitamin C
C Blueberry
C Coenzyme Q10
C Melatonin
C Methylsulfonylmethane
C Panax ginseng
C Rhodiola Rosea
C Vitamin E
C Anatabine
C Astaxanthin
C Fish Oil
C Glutamine
C Phosphatidylserine
C Taurine


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  50. Clarke MW1, et al Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes . Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  51. Lippman SM1, et al Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) . JAMA. (2009)
  52. Klein EA1, et al Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) . JAMA. (2011)
  53. Karlson EW1, et al Vitamin E in the primary prevention of rheumatoid arthritis: the Women's Health Study . Arthritis Rheum. (2008)
  54. Mirbagheri SA1, et al Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: a preliminary report . World J Gastroenterol. (2008)
  55. Lee IM1, et al Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial . JAMA. (2005)
  56. Lonn E1, et al Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial . JAMA. (2005)
  57. Ziaei S1, et al A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin E in treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea . BJOG. (2001)
  58. Ziaei S1, Zakeri M, Kazemnejad A A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea . BJOG. (2005)
  59. Kashanian M1, et al Evaluation of the effect of vitamin E on pelvic pain reduction in women suffering from primary dysmenorrhea . J Reprod Med. (2013)

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