Muscle Damage

Muscle damage refers to the breaking of muscle tissue during exercise, and is approximately by measuring some biomarkers in the blood released by damaged muscle (such as creatine kinase). Reducing muscle damage may alleviate soreness from exercise.

   

In Progress

This page on Muscle Damage is currently marked as in-progress. We are still compiling research.

You can help contribute by:



Follow this Page for updates

Confused about Supplements?
Get the Stack Guides

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what what supplements affect Muscle Damage
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
SupplementChange
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
BCreatine
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
BVitamin C
BL-Carnitine
BHMB
CCoenzyme Q10
CMelatonin
CRhodiola Rosea
CMethylsulfonylmethane
CGlutamine
CPanax ginseng
CPhosphatidylserine
CFish Oil
CTaurine
CBlueberry
CAnatabine
CAstaxanthin
CVitamin E

References

  1. Yeksan M, et al. Effect of vitamin E therapy on sexual functions of uremic patients in hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs. (1992)
  2. Dysken MW1, et al. Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial. JAMA. (2014)
  3. Sano M, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med. (1997)
  4. Petersen RC, et al. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med. (2005)
  5. Kang JH, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin E supplementation and cognitive function in women. Arch Intern Med. (2006)
  6. Miller ER 3rd, et al. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. (2005)
  7. McNeil JJ, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology. (2004)
  8. McAnulty SR, et al. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on plasma homocysteine and oxidative stress in highly trained athletes before and after exhaustive exercise. J Nutr Biochem. (2005)
  9. Rokitzki L, et al. alpha-Tocopherol supplementation in racing cyclists during extreme endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr. (1994)
  10. Baumann LS1, Spencer J. The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars. Dermatol Surg. (1999)
  11. Jenkins M1, et al. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil. (1986)
  12. Pallast EG1, et al. Effect of 50- and 100-mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in noninstitutionalized elderly persons. Am J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  13. Meydani SN1, et al. Assessment of the safety of high-dose, short-term supplementation with vitamin E in healthy older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  14. Tsai AC, et al. Study on the effect of megavitamin E supplementation in man. Am J Clin Nutr. (1978)
  15. Meydani SN1, et al. Assessment of the safety of supplementation with different amounts of vitamin E in healthy older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  16. Kitagawa M1, Mino M. Effects of elevated d-alpha(RRR)-tocopherol dosage in man. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (1989)
  17. Meydani SN1, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (1997)
  18. Meydani SN1, et al. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  19. Farrell PM1, Bieri JG. Megavitamin E supplementation in man. Am J Clin Nutr. (1975)
  20. Beoy LA1, Woei WJ2, Hay YK1. Effects of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in human volunteers. Trop Life Sci Res. (2010)
  21. Sanyal AJ1, et al. Pioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med. (2010)
  22. Sumida Y, et al. Long-term (>=2 yr) efficacy of vitamin E for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatogastroenterology. (2013)
  23. Hasegawa T1, et al. Plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 level and efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. (2001)
  24. Mahalingam D1, et al. Effects of supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction on immune response to tetanus toxoid immunization in normal healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  25. Radhakrishnan AK1, et al. Daily supplementation of tocotrienol-rich fraction or alpha-tocopherol did not induce immunomodulatory changes in healthy human volunteers. Br J Nutr. (2009)
  26. Pearson PJ1, et al. Vitamin E supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax. (2004)
  27. Meydani SN1, et al. Vitamin E and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2004)
  28. Rasool AH1, et al. Dose dependent elevation of plasma tocotrienol levels and its effect on arterial compliance, plasma total antioxidant status, and lipid profile in healthy humans supplemented with tocotrienol rich vitamin E. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2006)
  29. Economides PA1, et al. The effect of vitamin E on endothelial function of micro- and macrocirculation and left ventricular function in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. (2005)
  30. Gazis A1, et al. Effect of oral vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation on vascular endothelial function in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. (1999)
  31. Skyrme-Jones RA1, et al. Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2000)
  32. Liu S1, et al. Vitamin E and risk of type 2 diabetes in the women's health study randomized controlled trial. Diabetes. (2006)
  33. Buring JE. Aspirin prevents stroke but not MI in women; vitamin E has no effect on CV disease or cancer. Cleve Clin J Med. (2006)
  34. Heinonen OP1, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. (1998)
  35. Winterbone MS1, et al. Pro-oxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol in patients with type 2 diabetes after an oral glucose tolerance test--a randomised controlled trial. Cardiovasc Diabetol. (2007)
  36. Sampson MJ1, et al. Increased DNA oxidative susceptibility without increased plasma LDL oxidizability in Type II diabetes: effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond). (2001)
  37. Wu JH1, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherol supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Clin Chem. (2007)
  38. Glynn RJ1, et al. Effects of random allocation to vitamin E supplementation on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism: report from the Women's Health Study. Circulation. (2007)
  39. Roberts LJ 2nd1, et al. The relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans. Free Radic Biol Med. (2007)
  40. Meagher EA1, et al. Effects of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in healthy persons. JAMA. (2001)
  41. Singh I1, et al. Effects of gamma-tocopherol supplementation on thrombotic risk factors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  42. Clarke MW1, et al. Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  43. Lippman SM1, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. (2009)
  44. Klein EA1, et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. (2011)
  45. Karlson EW1, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of rheumatoid arthritis: the Women's Health Study. Arthritis Rheum. (2008)
  46. Mirbagheri SA1, et al. Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: a preliminary report. World J Gastroenterol. (2008)
  47. Lee IM1, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2005)
  48. Lonn E1, et al. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2005)
  49. Ziaei S1, et al. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin E in treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. BJOG. (2001)
  50. Ziaei S1, Zakeri M, Kazemnejad A. A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. BJOG. (2005)
  51. Kashanian M1, et al. Evaluation of the effect of vitamin E on pelvic pain reduction in women suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. J Reprod Med. (2013)

(Users who contributed to this page include BillWillis, , dbarvinok, KamalPatel, GregoryLopez, )