Muscle Creatine Content

Muscle creatine content refers to how much Creatine (total creatine plus creatine phosphate) is bioaccumulated in muscle tissue, and supplements that enhance muscular creatine concentrations are thought to confer the effects of creatine supplementation.


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This page on Muscle Creatine Content is currently marked as in-progress. We are still compiling research.

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what what supplements affect Muscle Creatine Content
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
DAlpha-Lipoic Acid


  1. McNeilly AM, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids Health Dis. (2011)
  2. Khabbazi T, et al. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Serum Lipid Profile Levels in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis. J Ren Nutr. (2011)
  3. Lott IT, et al. Down syndrome and dementia: a randomized, controlled trial of antioxidant supplementation. Am J Med Genet A. (2011)
  4. de Oliveira AM, et al. The effects of lipoic acid and α-tocopherol supplementation on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (2011)
  5. Milazzo L, et al. Effect of antioxidants on mitochondrial function in HIV-1-related lipoatrophy: a pilot study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. (2010)
  6. Palacka P, et al. Complementary therapy in diabetic patients with chronic complications: a pilot study. Bratisl Lek Listy. (2010)
  7. Carbonelli MG, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: a tool for obesity therapy. Curr Pharm Des. (2010)
  8. Zembron-Lacny A, et al. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol. (2009)
  9. Bae SC, et al. Effects of antioxidant supplements intervention on the level of plasma inflammatory molecules and disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr. (2009)
  10. Baillie JK, et al. Oral antioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. QJM. (2009)
  11. Martins VD, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid modifies oxidative stress parameters in sickle cell trait subjects and sickle cell patients. Clin Nutr. (2009)
  12. Wray DW, et al. Oral antioxidants and cardiovascular health in the exercise-trained and untrained elderly: a radically different outcome. Clin Sci (Lond). (2009)
  13. Jariwalla RJ, et al. Restoration of blood total glutathione status and lymphocyte function following alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in patients with HIV infection. J Altern Complement Med. (2008)
  14. Vincent HK, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. (2007)
  15. Foster TS. Efficacy and safety of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Educ. (2007)
  16. Thom E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the clinical efficacy of oral treatment with DermaVite on ageing symptoms of the skin. J Int Med Res. (2005)
  17. Weiss C, et al. Effects of supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid on exercise-induced activation of coagulation. Metabolism. (2005)
  18. Sola S, et al. Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) study. Circulation. (2005)
  19. Sharman JE, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid does not acutely affect resistance and conduit artery function or oxidative stress in healthy men. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (2004)
  20. Burke DG, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003)
  21. Coleman MD, Fernandes S, Khanderia L. A preliminary evaluation of a novel method to monitor a triple antioxidant combination (vitamins E, C and α-lipoic acid) in diabetic volunteers using in vitro methaemoglobin formation. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. (2003)
  22. Koh EH, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic Acid on body weight in obese subjects. Am J Med. (2011)
  23. Ranieri M, et al. The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. (2009)
  24. Porasuphatana S, et al. Glycemic and oxidative status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  25. Ziegler D, et al. Efficacy and safety of antioxidant treatment with α-lipoic acid over 4 years in diabetic polyneuropathy: the NATHAN 1 trial. Diabetes Care. (2011)
  26. G D X, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. (2010)
  27. Heinisch BB, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid improves vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Eur J Clin Invest. (2010)

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