Muscle Creatine Content

Muscle creatine content refers to how much Creatine (total creatine plus creatine phosphate) is bioaccumulated in muscle tissue, and supplements that enhance muscular creatine concentrations are thought to confer the effects of creatine supplementation.

This page features 23 unique references to scientific papers.

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what supplements affect Muscle Creatine Content
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
A Creatine
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
C Trimethylglycine
D Alpha-Lipoic Acid


  1. Miglio F, et al Efficacy and safety of oral betaine glucuronate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled prospective clinical study . Arzneimittelforschung. (2000)
  2. Apicella JM, et al Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise . Eur J Appl Physiol. (2013)
  3. López-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Rodriguez-Aguado C Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of a betaine-containing mouthwash and an intraoral device for the treatment of dry mouth . J Oral Pathol Med. (2012)
  4. Ship JA, et al Safety and effectiveness of topical dry mouth products containing olive oil, betaine, and xylitol in reducing xerostomia for polypharmacy-induced dry mouth . J Oral Rehabil. (2007)
  5. Söderling E, et al Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth . Acta Odontol Scand. (1998)
  6. Rantanen I, et al Effects of a betaine-containing toothpaste on subjective symptoms of dry mouth: a randomized clinical trial . J Contemp Dent Pract. (2003)
  7. Alfthan G, et al The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers . Br J Nutr. (2004)
  8. Steenge GR, Verhoef P, Katan MB Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women . J Nutr. (2003)
  9. Schwab U, et al Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects . Am J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  10. Brouwer IA, Verhoef P, Urgert R Betaine supplementation and plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers . Arch Intern Med. (2000)
  11. Trepanowski JF, et al The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men . J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  12. Hoffman JR, et al Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise . J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  13. Hoffman JR, et al Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2009)
  14. Lee EC, et al Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2010)
  15. Pryor JL, Craig SA, Swensen T Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2012)
  16. Del Favero S, et al Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance . Amino Acids. (2011)
  17. Abdelmalek MF, et al Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study . Am J Gastroenterol. (2001)
  18. Abdelmalek MF, et al Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial . Hepatology. (2009)
  19. Schwab U, et al Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans . J Nutr. (2006)
  20. Armstrong LE, et al Influence of betaine consumption on strenuous running and sprinting in a hot environment . J Strength Cond Res. (2008)
  21. Atkinson W, et al Dietary and supplementary betaine: effects on betaine and homocysteine concentrations in males . Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
  22. Schwab U, et al Long-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  23. Olthof MR, et al Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans . PLoS Med. (2005)

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