LDL-C

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) choleterol is (sometimes falsely) seen as the 'bad' cholesterol and is the ying to HDL-C's yang. LDL serves to bring fatty acids and cholesterol from the liver and circulate them to tissues, oxidized LDL (oLDL) can contribute to heart disease.

This page features 31 unique references to scientific papers.

   
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what what supplements affect LDL-C
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
SupplementChange
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
APolicosanol
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
APsyllium
AFish Oil
AGarlic
ARed Clover Extract
AChromium
ACocoa Extract
BCurcumin
BConjugated Linoleic Acid
BSpirulina
BBerberine
BOlive leaf extract
BDehydroepiandrosterone
BGreen Tea Catechins
BL-Carnitine
BZinc
BNigella sativa
BHesperidin
BTrimethylglycine
BAstaxanthin
BVitamin E
BLactobacillus reuteri
CPyruvate
CGinger
CQuercetin
CBlack Cohosh
CPunicic Acid
CWhey Protein
CGrapefruit
CVanadium
CArtichoke Extract
CLicorice
CGynostemma pentaphyllum
CGreen Coffee Extract
CPueraria mirifica
CHemp Protein
CNattokinase
CEleutherococcus senticosus
CBenfotiamine
CAshwagandha
CCaffeine
CShilajit
CTheaflavins
CEcklonia cava
CSalvia hispanica
CGamma Oryzanol
CGarcinia cambogia
CGanoderma lucidum
CGrape Seed Extract
CHibiscus sabdariffa
CHMB
CJapanese Knotweed
CIrvingia gabonensis
CMagnesium
CMelatonin
CMicrolactin
CVitamin C
CVitamin D
CSoy lecithin
CRoyal Jelly
CResveratrol
CPycnogenol
CGuggul
CPanax ginseng
CPhosphatidylserine
CKrill Oil
CEphedrine
CCitrulline
CVitamin K
CSea Buckthorn
CBlueberry
CInositol
CRooibos
CAnethum graveolens
CCitrullus colocynthis
CCreatine
CPhosphatidylcholine
CYacon
CRose Hip
DPueraria lobata
DCoconut Oil
DYerba mate
DEclipta alba
DTetradecyl Thioacetic Acid
DSafflower Oil
DEmblica officinalis
DHorse Chestnut
DRubus coreanus
DPerilla Oil
DPyrroloquinoline quinone

References

  1. Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2006)
  2. Djoussé L, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  3. Flynn MA, et al. Serum lipids and eggs. J Am Diet Assoc. (1986)
  4. Bowman MP, et al. Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol on plasma lipids and lipoprotein fractions in normolipidemic men. J Nutr. (1988)
  5. Chenoweth W, et al. Influence of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum lipids in men. J Nutr. (1981)
  6. Effect of dietary eggs and ascorbic acid on plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy young men
  7. Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles
  8. Johnson C, Greenland P. Effects of exercise, dietary cholesterol, and dietary fat on blood lipids. Arch Intern Med. (1990)
  9. Sacks FM, et al. Ingestion of egg raises plasma low density lipoproteins in free-living subjects. Lancet. (1984)
  10. Down-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor by dietary cholesterol
  11. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of two eggs per day in moderately hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic subjects taught the NCEP step I diet
  12. Romano G, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses in IDDM patients. Diabetologia. (1998)
  13. Mayurasakorn K, et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes after continuous egg consumption in healthy adults. J Med Assoc Thai. (2008)
  14. Vishwanathan R, et al. Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  15. Katz DL, et al. Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Int J Cardiol. (2005)
  16. Njike V, et al. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010)
  17. Jones PJ. Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. (2009)
  18. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis
  19. Fernandez ML. Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Food Funct. (2010)
  20. McNamara DJ. The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up. J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  21. Fernandez ML, Calle M. Revisiting dietary cholesterol recommendations: does the evidence support a limit of 300 mg/d. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2010)
  22. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease
  23. Hu FB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA. (1999)
  24. Spence JD, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Can J Cardiol. (2010)
  25. Herron KL, et al. High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification. Metabolism. (2004)
  26. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M. Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  27. Goodrow EF, et al. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr. (2006)
  28. Effect of a High Saturated Fat and No-Starch Diet on Serum Lipid Subfractions in Patients With Documented Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
  29. Mutungi G, et al. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr. (2008)
  30. Mutungi G, et al. Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr Biochem. (2010)
  31. Fernández-Robredo P, et al. Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia. J Nutr Biochem. (2008)
  32. Harris CB, et al. Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem. (2013)

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