Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) choleterol is (sometimes falsely) seen as the 'bad' cholesterol and is the ying to HDL-C's yang. LDL serves to bring fatty acids and cholesterol from the liver and circulate them to tissues, oxidized LDL (oLDL) can contribute to heart disease.

This page features 49 unique references to scientific papers.

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what supplements affect LDL-C
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
A Garlic
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
A Cocoa Extract
A Fish Oil
A Policosanol
A Psyllium
A Chromium
A Red Clover Extract
B Vitamin B3
B Berberine
B Green Tea Catechins
B Nigella sativa
B Olive leaf extract
B Spirulina
B Trimethylglycine
B Zinc
B Astaxanthin
B Conjugated Linoleic Acid
B Curcumin
B Dehydroepiandrosterone
B Hesperidin
B L-Carnitine
B Lactobacillus reuteri
B Vitamin E
C Krill Oil
C Soy lecithin
C Artichoke Extract
C Ashwagandha
C Ecklonia cava
C Eleutherococcus senticosus
C Ephedrine
C Ginger
C Grapefruit
C Guggul
C Inositol
C Irvingia gabonensis
C Microlactin
C Panax ginseng
C Pterostilbene
C Pueraria mirifica
C Pycnogenol
C Pyruvate
C Quercetin
C Resveratrol
C Rooibos
C Rose Hip
C Shilajit
C Vitamin D
C Whey Protein
C Yacon
C Anethum graveolens
C Benfotiamine
C Black Cohosh
C Blueberry
C Caffeine
C Citrulline
C Citrullus colocynthis
C Creatine
C Gamma Oryzanol
C Ganoderma lucidum
C Garcinia cambogia
C Grape Seed Extract
C Green Coffee Extract
C Gynostemma pentaphyllum
C Hemp Protein
C Hibiscus sabdariffa
C Japanese Knotweed
C Licorice
C Magnesium
C Melatonin
C Nattokinase
C Phosphatidylcholine
C Phosphatidylserine
C Punicic Acid
C Royal Jelly
C Salvia hispanica
C Sea Buckthorn
C Theaflavins
C Vanadium
C Vitamin C
C Vitamin K
D Eclipta alba
D Coconut Oil
D Emblica officinalis
D Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid
D Yerba mate
D Horse Chestnut
D Perilla Oil
D Pueraria lobata
D Pyrroloquinoline quinone
D Rubus coreanus
D Safflower Oil


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  2. Cashin-Hemphill L1, et al Beneficial effects of colestipol-niacin on coronary atherosclerosis. A 4-year follow-up . JAMA. (1990)
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  4. Plaisance EP1, et al Increased total and high-molecular weight adiponectin after extended-release niacin . Metabolism. (2008)
  5. Fernandez ML Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations . Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2006)
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  10. Effect of dietary eggs and ascorbic acid on plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy young men
  11. Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles
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  13. Sacks FM, et al Ingestion of egg raises plasma low density lipoproteins in free-living subjects . Lancet. (1984)
  14. Down-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor by dietary cholesterol
  15. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of two eggs per day in moderately hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic subjects taught the NCEP step I diet
  16. Romano G, et al Effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses in IDDM patients . Diabetologia. (1998)
  17. Mayurasakorn K, et al High-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes after continuous egg consumption in healthy adults . J Med Assoc Thai. (2008)
  18. Vishwanathan R, et al Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins . Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  19. Katz DL, et al Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial . Int J Cardiol. (2005)
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  21. Jones PJ Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data . Int J Clin Pract Suppl. (2009)
  22. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis
  23. Fernandez ML Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations . Food Funct. (2010)
  24. McNamara DJ The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up . J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  25. Fernandez ML, Calle M Revisiting dietary cholesterol recommendations: does the evidence support a limit of 300 mg/d . Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2010)
  26. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease
  27. Hu FB, et al A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women . JAMA. (1999)
  28. Spence JD, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease . Can J Cardiol. (2010)
  29. Herron KL, et al High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification . Metabolism. (2004)
  30. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes . Br J Nutr. (2011)
  31. Goodrow EF, et al Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations . J Nutr. (2006)
  32. Effect of a High Saturated Fat and No-Starch Diet on Serum Lipid Subfractions in Patients With Documented Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
  33. Mutungi G, et al Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet . J Nutr. (2008)
  34. Mutungi G, et al Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet . J Nutr Biochem. (2010)
  35. Fern√°ndez-Robredo P, et al Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia . J Nutr Biochem. (2008)
  36. Bissett DL1, Oblong JE, Berge CA Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance . Dermatol Surg. (2005)
  37. Hakozaki T1, et al The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer . Br J Dermatol. (2002)
  38. AIM-HIGH Investigators, et al Niacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy . N Engl J Med. (2011)
  39. Fabbrini E1, et al Effect of fenofibrate and niacin on intrahepatic triglyceride content, very low-density lipoprotein kinetics, and insulin action in obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  40. Chen X1, Iqbal N, Boden G The effects of free fatty acids on gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in normal subjects . J Clin Invest. (1999)
  41. Chang AM1, et al Impaired beta-cell function in human aging: response to nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2006)
  42. No authors listed Clofibrate and niacin in coronary heart disease . JAMA. (1975)
  43. Gebicki J1, et al 1-Methylnicotinamide: a potent anti-inflammatory agent of vitamin origin . Pol J Pharmacol. (2003)
  44. Westphal S1, et al Extended-release niacin raises adiponectin and leptin . Atherosclerosis. (2007)
  45. Blond E1, et al Nicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro study . Horm Metab Res. (2014)
  46. Kelly JJ1, et al Effects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjects . J Hum Hypertens. (2000)
  47. Nasser Figueiredo V1, et al Short-term effects of extended-release niacin with and without the addition of laropiprant on endothelial function in individuals with low HDL-C: a randomized, controlled crossover trial . Clin Ther. (2014)
  48. Sakai T1, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML Niacin, but not gemfibrozil, selectively increases LP-AI, a cardioprotective subfraction of HDL, in patients with low HDL cholesterol . Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2001)
  49. Fraterrigo G1, et al Relationship between Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Concentration and Insulin Sensitivity after Niacin Therapy . Cardiorenal Med. (2012)

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