Bone Mineral Density

Bone mineral density (BMD) is the density of mineral in bone tissue (more mass in the same area causing an increase in density), and is thought to reflect structural integrity of bones. Improving BMD reduces the risk of osteoporosis and falls in the elderly.

This page features 33 unique references to scientific papers.

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Also Known As


The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what supplements affect Bone Mineral Density
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
A Vitamin K
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
B Creatine
B Dehydroepiandrosterone
B Red Clover Extract
C Coleus forskohlii
C Horny Goat Weed
C Magnesium
C Vitamin C
C Conjugated Linoleic Acid
C Leucic Acid
C Vitamin D
C Whey Protein
D Yerba mate
D Black Cohosh
D Calcium
D Fish Oil


  1. Loing E, et al A new strategy to modulate alopecia using a combination of two specific and unique ingredients . J Cosmet Sci. (2013)
  2. Nestel P, et al A biochanin-enriched isoflavone from red clover lowers LDL cholesterol in men . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  3. Hidalgo LA, et al The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study . Gynecol Endocrinol. (2005)
  4. Baber RJ, et al Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women . Climacteric. (1999)
  5. Knight DC, Howes JB, Eden JA The effect of Promensil, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptoms . Climacteric. (1999)
  6. van de Weijer PH, Barentsen R Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo . Maturitas. (2002)
  7. Tice JA, et al Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: the Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: a randomized controlled trial . JAMA. (2003)
  8. Atkinson C, et al Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ISRCTN42940165 . Breast Cancer Res. (2004)
  9. Lee CC, et al Effect of oral phytoestrogen on androgenicity and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women . Diabetes Obes Metab. (2012)
  10. Blakesmith SJ, et al Effects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal women . Br J Nutr. (2003)
  11. Powles TJ, et al Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer . Menopause Int. (2008)
  12. Vrieling A, et al Isolated isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk . J Nutr. (2007)
  13. Vrieling A, et al No effect of red clover-derived isoflavone intervention on the insulin-like growth factor system in women at increased risk of colorectal cancer . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (2008)
  14. Schult TM, et al Effect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnover markers in menopausal women . Maturitas. (2004)
  15. Clifton-Bligh PB, et al The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism . Menopause. (2001)
  16. Campbell MJ, et al Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: a pilot study . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  17. Howes JB, et al The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia . Atherosclerosis. (2000)
  18. Nestel PJ, et al Isoflavones from red clover improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal women . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1999)
  19. Teede HJ, et al Isoflavones reduce arterial stiffness: a placebo-controlled study in men and postmenopausal women . Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2003)
  20. Imhof M, et al Effects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal women . Maturitas. (2006)
  21. Howes JB, et al Effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes . Diabetes Obes Metab. (2003)
  22. Atkinson C, et al Modest protective effects of isoflavones from a red clover-derived dietary supplement on cardiovascular disease risk factors in perimenopausal women, and evidence of an interaction with ApoE genotype in 49-65 year-old women . J Nutr. (2004)
  23. Samman S, et al Red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones and serum homocysteine in premenopausal women: a pilot study . J Womens Health (Larchmt). (2009)
  24. Lipovac M, et al The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women . Gynecol Endocrinol. (2012)
  25. del Giorno C, et al Effects of Trifolium pratense on the climacteric and sexual symptoms in postmenopause women . Rev Assoc Med Bras. (2010)
  26. Atkinson C, et al The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial . Am J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  27. Geller SE, et al Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial . Menopause. (2009)
  28. Terzic MM, et al Influence of red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women . J Obstet Gynaecol Res. (2009)
  29. Lipovac M, et al Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts . Maturitas. (2010)
  30. Chedraui P, et al Effect of Trifolium pratense-derived isoflavones on the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with increased body mass index . Gynecol Endocrinol. (2008)
  31. Howes JB, et al The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on cognitive function in postmenopausal women . Climacteric. (2004)
  32. Lipovac M, et al Effect of Red Clover Isoflavones over Skin, Appendages, and Mucosal Status in Postmenopausal Women . Obstet Gynecol Int. (2011)
  33. Ehsanpour S, et al The effects of red clover on quality of life in post-menopausal women . Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. (2012)

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