Arterial Stiffness

   

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    Scientific Information on Arterial Stiffness

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    The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what what supplements affect Arterial Stiffness
    GradeLevel of Evidence
    ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
    BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
    CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
    DUncontrolled or observational studies only
    Level of Evidence
    SupplementChange
    Magnitude of Effect Size
    Scientific ConsensusComments
    BVitamin E
    Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

    All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
    CGarlic
    CRed Clover Extract
    DCocoa Extract

    References

    1. Monahan KD, et al. Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults. J Appl Physiol. (2011)
    2. Tzounis X, et al. Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
    3. Pase MP, et al. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol. (2013)
    4. Francis ST, et al. The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (2006)
    5. Loffredo L1, et al. Dark chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Am Heart Assoc. (2014)
    6. Hammer A1, et al. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: A randomized, controlled cross-over trial. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. (2014)
    7. Carnevale R1, et al. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet isoprostanes via NOX2 down-regulation in smokers. J Thromb Haemost. (2012)
    8. Loffredo L1, et al. NOX2-mediated arterial dysfunction in smokers: acute effect of dark chocolate. Heart. (2011)
    9. Taub PR1, et al. Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa. Clin Transl Sci. (2012)
    10. Vlachopoulos C1, et al. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens. (2005)
    11. Engler MB1, et al. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. (2004)
    12. Shiina Y, et al. Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults. Int J Cardiol. (2009)
    13. Tokede OA1, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
    14. Grassi D1, et al. Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
    15. Muniyappa R1, et al. Cocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. (2008)
    16. Grassi D1, et al. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension. (2005)
    17. Mogollon JA, et al. Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Nutr J. (2014)
    18. Grassi D1, et al. Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate. J Nutr. (2008)
    19. Balzer J1, et al. Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2008)
    20. Fraga CG1, et al. Regular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer players. Clin Dev Immunol. (2005)
    21. Davison K1, et al. Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). (2008)
    22. Wan Y1, et al. Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (2001)
    23. Crews WD Jr1, Harrison DW, Wright JW. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact olde. Am J Clin Nutr. (2008)
    24. Zhu QY1, et al. Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis. Clin Dev Immunol. (2005)
    25. Almoosawi S1, et al. The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects. Br J Nutr. (2010)

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