Syzygium aromaticum

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum).

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1Sources and Composition

1.1. Sources

Syzygium aromaticum (of the family ) is a spice commonly referred to as Cloves, and appears to have some traditional usage as an Aphrodisiac as well as for the medicinal purposes of dental disorders, respiratory disorders, headache and sore throat.[1][2]


2Neurology

2.1. Aphrodisia

A 50% hydroalcoholic extract of syzygium aromaticum at 500mg/kg acutely is able to increase mounting of male mice with a potency nonsignificantly lesser than nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) and significantly less than 5mg/kg Viagra.[3] Later, oral intake of 100-500mg/kg of a 50% hydroalcoholic extract of syzygium aromaticum for seven days showed dose-dependent libido enhancement with a potency still lesser than 5mg/kg Viagra.[4]

Appears to have libido enhancing properties, although they are significantly less than that of Viagra and nonsignificantly less than the other libido enhancer tested (Nutmeg)


3Interactions with Organ Systems

3.1. Testicles (and male fertility)

Oral ingestion of 15mg/kg Syzygium aromaticum in male mice for 35 days is associated with increased testicular Δ5 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzyme activity (thought to underlie the observed increases in testosterone).[2]

30-60mg/kg dietary Syzygium aromaticum in male mice appears to induce testicular toxicity as assessed by serum testosterone and histological examination of the semineferous tubules.[2]

The essential oil of clove possesses spermicidal activity in vitro when incubated alongside the sperm[5] which may be rlated to the Eugenol content as this molecule has been known to possess anti-fertility actions.[6]


4Interactions with Hormones

4.1. Testosterone

Oral ingestion of the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum at 15, 30, or 60mg/kg for 35 days in otherwise healthy male mice noted that the lowest dose of 15mg/kg increased serum testosterone 26% while the two higher doses were associated with reductions of testosterone (38-39%) secondary to testicular damage.[2]

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

References

  1. Domaracký M, et al Effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth and development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo . Physiol Res. (2007)
  2. Mishra RK, Singh SK Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in mice . Food Chem Toxicol. (2008)
  3. Tajuddin, et al Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study . BMC Complement Altern Med. (2003)
  4. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats
  5. Buch JG, Dikshit RK, Mansuri SM Effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa . Indian J Med Res. (1988)
  6. Vanithakumari G, et al Effect of short-term treatment of eugenol on the seminal vesicles of adult albino rats . Indian J Exp Biol. (1998)
  7. Writing Group for the NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) Investigators, et al Effect of creatine monohydrate on clinical progression in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial . JAMA. (2015)
  8. Taylor MJ1, et al Folate for depressive disorders . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2003)
  9. Godfrey PS1, et al Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate . Lancet. (1990)
  10. Kushwaha S1, Chawla P1, Kochhar A1 Effect of supplementation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves powder on antioxidant profile and oxidative status among postmenopausal women . J Food Sci Technol. (2014)

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