Ophiopogon japonicus

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1Sources and Composition

1.1. Sources

Ophiopogon japonicus (of the family lilaceae) is an evergreen perennial and Traditional Chinese Medicine mostly for the treatment of cardivascular complications and inflammation[1][2] in the form of the root, referred to as Radix ophiopogon.[2] It is said to have the functions to "moisturize dryness and promote the production of body fluid" and for the treatment of "Xiao Ke" symptom, being interpreted as the treatment of type II diabetes.[2]

1.2. Composition

  • Ruscogenin (named after its original source Ruscus aculeatus)[3] and glycosides thereof such as Ophiopogonin D (0.000006% dry weight or higher[3]) and Spicatoside A[3]

  • Ruscogenin glycosides (at two separate locations on the ruscogenin molecule) Ophiopogonin F (glycoside[1]) and Ophiopogonin G (glycoside[1])

  • Ophiogenin[4]

  • Ophiopogonol[4] (sequesterpene) and its glycoside ophioside A[4]

  • Nolinospiroside F,[5][6] structurally different than the aforementioned but still a ruscogenin diglycoside

  • Homoisoflavone ophiopogonone E[7] and ophiopogonanone A, E, and H[8][9][10][7]

  • Methylophiopogonanone A and B[11][7]

  • Methylophiopogonone A[8][7]

The bioactives in this plant seem to either be the steriodal saponin known as Ruscogenin or glycosides based off of ruscogenin, although their concentrations appear to be much lower than the other known plant to contain them (ruscus aculeatus). The homoflavones also present in this plant may also play roles

There also appears to be a polysaccharide fragment associated with antidiabetic properties in plant roots[12][13] referred to as OJP1 (Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide 1[14]) which weights approximately 35.2kDa and is 98.5% carbohydrate; the carbohydrates being arabinose, glucose and galactose in a 1:16:8 ratio.[13][14]

Other polysaccharides include one known as MDG1 which is a water soluble β-d-fructan (also in the root) that is smaller at 3.4kDa and constitutes up to 4% of the plants roots by dry weight,[2] this polysaccharide has a backbone of β-D-fructofuranosyl molecules (Frufs) connected 2→1 with branches of β-D-fructofuranosyl (2→6) and trace amounts of α-d-Glc.[2][15] POJ-U1a is a highly branched polysaccharide consisting of pyranoside and funanside,[16] and there is also a series of polysulfated polysaccharides known as sOPS(t), sOPS(80), sJPS(t) and sJPS(50).[17]

Carbohydrates consist of 71% of the roots dry weight.[2][18]

The polysaccharides in this plant also appear to be bioactive in regards to diabetes and possible the immune system, and due to their large quantities they may be the major consitutents of consuming the her


2Longevity

2.1. NonMammalian Studies

The steroidal glycoside Nolinospiroside F has been noted to prolong yeast lifespan in a manner associated with SIRT1 activation and increased antioxidative effects (due to higher SOD expression and reduced oxidation byproducts), and 10µM of Nolinospiroside F appeared to outperform 10µM Resveratrol.[5]


3Neurology

3.1. Neurogenesis

Ruscogenin and some of the steroidal lactones (Spicatoside A) in ophiopogon japonicus appear to be able to induce neuritogenesis in PC12 cells at low concentrations (0.3-1μM, 300-1,000nM) in a manner dependent on activating ERK signalling;[19][3] the potency is lesser than the reference drug of NGF itself (40ng/mL), with NGF increasing neurite growth by 80% relative to baseline and some of the steroidal lactones in the range of 46-54% (control, in medium without any agonist, reaching 10% higher than baseline).[3]

3.2. Stroke and Ischemia

In mice given 5-10mg/kg of pure ruscogenin prior to ischemia/reperfusion (MCAO) did not alter blood flow during ischemia but reduced the infarct size afterwards in a dose-dependent manner by 37.4-63%.[20]


4Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

4.1. Type II Diabetes

The polysaccharide component of this plant (OJP1) appears to possess antidiabetic properties in basic streptozotocin induced diabetic rat models[13][14] and in diabetic rats who are also pregnant[12] in a seemingly dose-dependent manner in the rangeof 150-500mg/kg.


5Fat Mass and Obesity

5.1. Adipokines

In streptozotocin induced diabetic pregnant rats (model for gestational diabetes), the polysaccharide fragment of ophiopogon japonicus (125-500mg/kg) orally for two weeks is able to attenuate changes in blood glucose and insulin thought to be secondary to attenuating the suppression of adiponectin synthesis in adipose tissue.[12]

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

References

  1. Guo Y, et al Two novel furostanol saponins from the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus . J Asian Nat Prod Res. (2013)
  2. Wang LY, et al MDG-1, a polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus exerts hypoglycemic effects through the PI3K/Akt pathway in a diabetic KKAy mouse model . J Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  3. Qu Y, et al New neuritogenic steroidal saponin from Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2011)
  4. Lan S, et al Chemical constituents from the fibrous root of Ophiopogon japonicus, and their effect on tube formation in human myocardial microvascular endothelial cells . Fitoterapia. (2013)
  5. Sun K, et al A Steroidal Saponin from Ophiopogon japonicus Extends the Lifespan of Yeast via the Pathway Involved in SOD and UTH1 . Int J Mol Sci. (2013)
  6. Comparative Studies on the Constituents of Ophiopogonis Tuber and Its Congeners. II. Studies on the Constituents of the Subterranean Part of Ophiopogon planiscapus NAKAI
  7. Li N, et al Anti-inflammatory homoisoflavonoids from the tuberous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus . Fitoterapia. (2012)
  8. Asano T, et al Comparative studies on the constituents of ophiopogonis tuber and its congeners. VIII. Studies on the glycosides of the subterranean part of Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawler cv. Nanus . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1993)
  9. Hoang Anh NT, et al Homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawler . Phytochemistry. (2003)
  10. Comparative Studies on the Constituents of Ophiopogonis Tuber and Its Congeners. IV. Studies on the Homoisoflavonoids of the Subterranean Part of Ophiopogon ohwii OKUYAMA and O. jaburan
  11. Analysis of homoisoflavonoids in Ophiopogon japonicus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS
  12. Wang H Preventive effects of ophiopogon-polysaccharide on apiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus rat . Asian Pac J Trop Med. (2013)
  13. Chen X, et al Protective effect of the polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats . Carbohydr Polym. (2013)
  14. Extraction, purification, characterization and hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide isolated from the root of Ophiopogon japonicus
  15. Xu DS, et al Isolation, purification and structural analysis of a polysaccharide MDG-1 from Ophiopogon japonicus . Yao Xue Xue Bao. (2005)
  16. Wang XM, et al Structure and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide POJ-U1a extracted by ultrasound from Ophiopogon japonicus . Fitoterapia. (2012)
  17. Zhang J, et al Immune-enhancing activity comparison of sulfated ophiopogonpolysaccharide and sulfated jujube polysaccharide . Int J Biol Macromol. (2013)
  18. Recent Progress in Studies on the Chemical Constituent and Pharmacologic Activities of Yin Tonifying Herbs
  19. Ye Y, et al Three new neuritogenic steroidal saponins from Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl . Steroids. (2013)
  20. Guan T, et al Ruscogenin reduces cerebral ischemic injury via NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathway in the mouse model of experimental stroke . Eur J Pharmacol. (2013)
  21. Writing Group for the NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) Investigators, et al Effect of creatine monohydrate on clinical progression in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial . JAMA. (2015)
  22. Taylor MJ1, et al Folate for depressive disorders . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2003)
  23. Godfrey PS1, et al Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate . Lancet. (1990)
  24. Kushwaha S1, Chawla P1, Kochhar A1 Effect of supplementation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves powder on antioxidant profile and oxidative status among postmenopausal women . J Food Sci Technol. (2014)

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