Amaranth

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects amaranth has on your body, and how strong these effects are.

Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
Treatment of Parkinsons - Low See study


1Sources and Composition

1.1. Sources

Amaranth is the common name used to refer to plants in the amaranthus genus (of the Amaranthaceae family).

Species used in supplementation include amaranthus tricolor,[1]amaranthus paniculatus, amaranthus caudatus, and amaranthus cruentus.[2]

While the grain of these plants is used nutritively, the leaves are also sometimes used as dietary supplements.[1]

1.2. Composition

Amaranth tends to contain:

  • Betacyanins, the pigments that gives amaranth a red colouration.[2] The overall levels varying depending on growing conditions such as soil quality[2] and light levels.[3] Concentrations have been noted to be in the range of 7-30mg/100g fresh weight of sprouts[2]


2Cardiovascular Health

2.1. Blood Flow

In otherwise healthy subjects, supplementation of 2g amaranth grain was able to increase both salivary and plasma levels of Nitrate and nitrite when compared to placebo.[4]


3Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

3.1. Blood Glucose

One study using the leaves of amaranthus tricolor (9 grams over three months) in postmenopausal women found that supplementation was associated with a 10.4% reduction in fasting glucose compared to control.[1] This change was attributed to the antioxidant properties of the leaves, as benefit was also found in this study with Moringa oleifera which acts via its antioxidant content.[1]


4Inflammation and Immunology

4.1. Macrophages

When tested in RAW 264.7 macrophages, amaranth seeds and sprouts from amaranthus cruentus (10 μg/mL) appeared to exert an antiinflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-kB translocation and limiting the amount of IL-6 secreted after stimulation from LPS.[2]


5Interactions with Oxidation

5.1. General

In postmenopausal women given supplemental amaranth (9 grams of the leaf powder) over the course of three months, supplementation appeared to have a small benefit to the amount of the antioxidant enzyme known as superoxide dismutase (SOD; increase of 10.8%) and concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation (9.6% assessed by MDA).[1]

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

References

  1. Kushwaha S, Chawla P, Kochhar A Effect of supplementation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves powder on antioxidant profile and oxidative status among postmenopausal women . J Food Sci Technol. (2014)
  2. Tyszka-Czochara M et al. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages . Biol Trace Elem Res. (2016)
  3. Khandaker L, Ali MB, Oba S Total Polyphenol and Antioxidant Activity of Red Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) as Affected by Different Sunlight Level . J Japan Soc Hortic Sci. (2008)
  4. Subramanian D, Gupta S Pharmacokinetic study of amaranth extract in healthy humans: A randomized trial . Nutrition. (2016)