Wine

Wine is a fermented grape product, commonly ingested as a source of Alcohol, that is seen as healthier due to its high stilbene and Resveratrol content. There are a variety of other antioxidants in wine that can benefit health.

This page features 9 unique references to scientific papers.


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Wine is a fermented and usually alcoholic beverage made from grapes. It tends to come in two forms, red or white, in which the different processing can yield different levels of colors found in the grape skin (which include Resveratrol, Anthocyanins, and other bioactives). Red wine tends to be seen as more beneficial due to higher levels of micronutrients.

Most benefit with red wine, epidemiologically, is seen with 300mL of red wine daily, plotted on a J-curve.[1] This is due to a combination of all factors in red wine.

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Also Known As

Red Wine, White Wine


Do Not Confuse With

Alcohol, Resveratrol


If you have isolated Resveratrol or stilbene compounds (resveratrol oligomers) in pill form, it would probably be a good idea to take the pill alongside a glass of red wine.

Synergies abound in the above compounds; even very subtle ones like the highly synergistic relation between Green Tea Catechins and capsicum vanniloids, primarily vanillic acid.


Kurtis Frank

Wine tends to contain the following, in varying dosages according to growing conditions and type of wine:

  • Resveratrol, a stilbene compound

  • Resveratrol oligomers (ε-viniferin, α-viniferin, sophostilbene A, rhaponticin, piceatannol).[2]

  • Alcohol

  • The amino acid proline[3] which acts with flavonol compounds to contribute bitter taste.[4]

  • Flavonol compounds like Quercetin, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin, and Myricetin glycosides[5]

  • Anthocyanins (in red wines), up to 45 different combinations of glycosides[5]

  • Flavanals, including the four Green Tea Catechins and 4 other catechins.[5]

  • Cinnamic acids such as Fertaric acid, Ferulic acid and Chlorogenic acid[5]

  • Benzoic acids such as vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid (anthocyanin metabolite)[5]

  • Possible natamycin content, based on processing and usage to avoid Ochratoxin A contamination[6][7]

  • Melatonin from the grapes[8] as well as some serotonin[9] The metabolite of serotonin, 5-HIAA, and the precursor, tryptophan, also exist in grapes and wine.

References

  1. Dolinsky VW, et al. Improvements in Skeletal Muscle Strength and Cardiac Function Induced by Resveratrol Contribute to Enhanced Exercise Performance in Rats. J Physiol. (2012)
  2. Bobrowska-Hägerstrand M, et al. Resveratrol oligomers are potent MRP1 transport inhibitors. Anticancer Res. (2006)
  3. Long D, et al. A rapid method for proline determination in grape juice and wine. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  4. Astringency and bitterness of selected phenolics in wine
  5. Zhu L, Zhang Y, Lu J. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations. Int J Mol Sci. (2012)
  6. Furusho N, et al. Analytical method for natamycin in wine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku. (2011)
  7. Medina A, et al. Efficacy of natamycin for control of growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius strains under different environmental conditions. J Appl Microbiol. (2007)
  8. Mercolini L, Mandrioli R, Raggi MA. Content of melatonin and other antioxidants in grape-related foodstuffs: measurement using a MEPS-HPLC-F method. J Pineal Res. (2011)
  9. Huang X, Mazza G. Simultaneous analysis of serotonin, melatonin, piceid and resveratrol in fruits using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. (2011)

(Common misspellings for Wine include wyne, win, whine)

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