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Synephrine is known as 'Bitter Orange extract', an amine compound found in fruits that exerts effects similar to Ephedrine in the body; albeit not as potent. This 'effect' is inducing fat loss and an increase in the Metabolic Rate through a process called 'beta adrenergic agonism', which is acting on the fat cell causing it to burn fats.
It has a high toxicity threshold and does not adversely affect blood pressure when in the form of Synephrine (rather than the parent compound 'Bitter Melon') and thus looks to be a very safe fat burning compound. Pairing it with two other flavonoid compounds found in grapefruit (Hesperidin and Naringin) seems to nearly triple its potency, this effect is not dose dependent.
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A recommended dosage is 10-20mg, taken thrice a day.
Acute dosages of 50mg are also frequently used, although not thrice a day.
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Synephrine is found from the Bitter orange plant, latin name Citrus aurantium. The plant contains a few active ingredients, namely para-synephrine(p-synephrine) and octopamine. Although meta-synephrine and ortho-synephrine could exist in fruits, they have not been observed in C.aurantium.
Typically, 'synephrine' in supplements refers to P-synephrine despite m-synephrine (also known as phenylephrine) having many of the same properties.
P-synephrine is a beta-agonist compound similar to Ephedrine. It can increase the metabolic rate via increasing lipolysis and basal metabolic rate. These effects are independent of diet for the most part, and can exert a passive increase in basal metabolic rate to produce weight loss over an extended period of time.
Synephrine also has alpha-adrenergic antagonist capabilities. Affecting both the A1 and A2 receptors, albeit with a different potency. In both the cases of alpha and beta agonism, the effects of both forms of synephrine are much less than that of noradrenaline.
It has been implicated in increasing the thermic effect of food, but one study noted this effect only in women.
The Bitter Orange itself (the parent plant) has been linked to increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Additionally, a common patented blend of P-synephrine known as Advantra-Z (which contains active bioflavonoids such as naringen and hesperidin) has been linked to an increase in blood pressure.
Overall, usage of P-synephrine appears to be quite safe and free of most adverse side effects.
(Common misspellings for Synephrine include synefrine, sinephrine, sinefrine, synepine, synephrin, sinefrin, synefrin)
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