Mucuna pruriens

Mucuna Pruriens, or Velvet Bean, is a bean that grows from trees and is very itchy to touch due to serotonin on its surface. It is a good source of L-DOPA, and contains some other molecules that may aid the benefits of L-DOPA. The other psychoactives in Mucuna are dosed too low to be relevant.

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Also Known As

Velvet Bean, Cowitch, Werepe, Karara, Agbara


Do Not Confuse With

Levodopa (active ingredient)


Is a Form of


Caution Notice

Mucuna Pruriens contains L-DOPA, also known as Levodopa. This is a dopamine precursor and sometimes used as a pharmaceutical to treat Parkinson's Disease (alongside another compound known as Carbidopa)

Compounds contraindicated with Levodopa/Carbidopa treatment most likely extend to Mucuna Pruriens and should be approached with caution. This appears to be narrow-eye glaucoma suffers, those using pharmaceutical MAO inhibitors, and those who have a history of melanoma or suspicious and undiagnosed skin lesions.

Examine.com Medical Disclaimer

Supplement-wise, 5g of Mucuna Prurients dried powder has been used with efficacy in some human studies on Parkinson's Disease and Fertility. This dose or doses upwards of it should be a good starting point.

If your supplement is standardized for L-DOPA and you are supplementing for an effect attributed to L-DOPA, then start with about 1/2 the L-DOPA equivalent and work up if needed (this is due to the same amount of L-DOPA in Mucuna being more bioactive relative to isolated L-DOPA without carbidopa).

Mucuna Pruriens can be eaten isolated as a food product, but cooking is required to destroy trypsin inhibitors in the beans (so protein absorption is not hindered) yet cooking also destroys L-DOPA.

Some supplements use the cotyledon of Mucuna Pruriens, which may have different nutrient profiles relative to the bean or whole root.


It is interesting to see the majority of research on Mucuna Pruriens catered to snake venom negation and its usage as a Parkinson's treatment, whereas most people seek supplementation with Mucuna as an anti-depressant, Libido booster, or testosterone supplement.

It seems to be a nice bean/herbal, and does seem to be relatively bioactive in oral dosages of 5g or more of the extract. Its usage as a test booster is quite questionable, but it may go the way of Zinc in the sense that it can increase test during a deficiency but not beyond normal levels.

Also, the levels of the hallucinogens in Mucuna Pruriens are too low to feel; this isn't going to be a good source of N,N-dimethyltryptamine.


Kurtis Frank

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what effect Mucuna pruriens has in your body, and how strong these effects are.
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
EffectChange
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
BSperm Quality

Minor

There appears to be an increase in seminal quality and oxidative parameters following 3-month ingestion of Mucuna pruriens, which is thought to be secondary to correcting... show

CTestosterone

Minor

An increase in testosterone is seen in infertile men. It is unsure if this increase in testosterone occurs in fertile and otherwise healthy men

CProlactin

Minor

A decrease in prolactin appears to occur following Mucuna or L-DOPA ingestion

CDopamine

Minor

The reduction in dopamine seen in infertility seems to be reversed with L-DOPA ingestion; theoretically L-DOPA ingestion should unilaterally increase dopamine

CAdrenaline

Minor

The decrease in adrenaline seen in infertility is normalized with mucuna

CNoradrenaline

Minor

The reduction in noradrenaline levels seen in infertility is normalized following mucuna ingestion

CSymptoms of Parkinsons Disease

Notable

Possible symptoms reduction in Parkinson's Disease related to the L-DOPA content and theorized (but not proven) peripheral dopamine decarboxylase inhibitor; this is notable... show

CSubjective Well-Being

Minor

An increase in well being has been noted to be secondary to a reduction in cortisol

CSeminal Motility

Minor

An increase in seminal motility is observed following mucuna ingestion

CCortisol

Minor

In chronically stressed men, prolonged ingestion of mucuna pruriens appears to be able to reduce cortisol concentrations


Disagree? Join the Mucuna pruriens Discussion

Table of Contents:


Edit1. Sources and Composition

1.1. Sources

Mucuna Pruriens is a plant from India, the Caribbean or Arfica. It is a climbing shrub that has the ability to grow white, lavender, or purple flowers and causes itching upon physical contact with the outer hairs and skin. Like most herbal supplements, it possess an anti-oxidant content.[1]

Mucuna is actually a legume, and thus has a caloric content. Beside the nutraceutical content below, mucuna (velvet) beans contain 20-35% protein by total caloric content.[2] Mucuna also contains protein digestive enzyme inhibitors, which can be reduced with processing.[3] Soaking in bicarbonate (following by autoclaving or cooking) has been shown to reduce a wide variety of anti-nutrients in Velvet beans, but also reduces levodopa content, the active ingredient.[4]

1.2. Composition

Mucuna Pruriens contains:

  • L-DOPA, or Levodopa, the precursor to dopamine and seen as the main constituent[5] and eventually adrenaline. The three catecholamines are also present in Mucuna[6]
  • Nicotinic Acid[7]
  • Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in dosages of 8-24mg/500g dried milled seeds, which may have interactions with u-opioid receptors based on their structures.[8]
  • Serotonin and its precursor, 5-HTP
  • NN-dimethyltryptamine and 5-MeO-dimethyltryptamine (bufotenin) in the seed.[9]
  • Beta-Carboline[10]
  • Mucunain, a compound that causes itches when skin comes into contact with Mucuna species
  • Various saponins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins[1]
  • A glycoprotein inhibitor of protein digestive enzymes[11]
  • Behenic Acid, a dietary fatty acid with low bioavailability[12]
  • In the cotyledon of the plant, CoQ10 and Nicotine adenine Dinucleotide (NADH).[7]
  • D-chiro Inositol (2.1+/-0.2mg/g) and two storage forms of it (galactose glycosides; 11.4 and 21.2mg/g), also myo-inositol (8.2+/-0.6)[13]
  • Basic dietary minerals in small amounts, such as Selenium, Iron and Magnesium[12]

Mature seeds contain typically 3.1-6.1% Levodopa, although up to 12.5% has been recorded. The leaves tend to contain around 0.5%.[14][15][16][5] When looking at studies that take random marketed supplements off the market and analyze them, values tend to fluctuate in the lower range of 3.8-4.3%.[17]

Tryptamine compounds (hallucinogenic compounds) are at rather low dosages in the leaves and non-existent in the seeds; 0.006% Dimethyltryptamine, 0.0025% 5-MeO-Dimethyltryptamine, and 0.003% Dimethyltryptamine Oxide.[14] 5-MeO-Dimethyltryptamine (Bufotenin) has been noted to be as high as 4.14ug/g in the root, but was not present in the pod.[18]


Edit2. Pharmacology

When measuring the L-Dopa (Levodopa) in the bloodstream after ingestion of 15g or 30g of Mucuna Pruriens, the AUC 16,306+/-4024 and 43,087+/-9735ng/h/mL respectively (whereas standard L-dopa/carbidopa 200mg/50mg was 16,243+/-2543), the Cmax was 8,607+/-1979ng/mL and 14,606ng/mL respectively (standard was 6596+/-1098), the Tmax was 61.8+/-12.9 minutes and 72.5+/-15.1 minutes respectively (standard was 95.5+/-10.5 minutes) and half-life was 58.6+/-5.1 minutes and 94+/-25.5 respectively (standard was 90.8+/-23.8).[19] Statistically different results were seen with 30g Mucuna having a larger AUC and Cmax and 15g Mucuna having significantly less of a half-life.[19]

Measured AUC of 3-O-methyldopa was not significantly different between standard treatment (24,267+/-4559 ng/h/mL) and 30g Mucuna (22,698+/-2833 ng/h/mL) but was significantly less for 15g Mucuna (20,292+/-283.3 ng/h/mL).[19]

2.1. Comparisons against Levodopa

Levodopa treatment is the standard therapy used for treatment of Parkinson's symptoms. It is generally seen as preferred as it is one molecule and can be studied better than Mucuna Pruriens, which is sometimes seen as a highly variable cocktail of many ingredients with unknown interactions.

It has been suggested that although Levodopa per se can increase DNA damage through copper ions in the brain, some other compounds in Mucuna alleviate this damage via exerting a metal chelating effect.[20] This insinuates less potential DNA damage from copper ion excess with Mucuna relative to Levodopa. The general co-ingestion of anti-oxidants alongside metal chelators may confer additional protection.[21]

At least one human study on Mucuna Pruriens compared its results to standard Levodopa treatment and noted less occurance of dyskinesia.[22] It is not sure whether this is due to the above protective mechanisms, or due to Levodopa from Mucuna Pruriens being more bioactive. Levodopa in Mucuna Pruriens appears to be 2-3x more bioactive (potent) when compared to the same dose of isolated Levodopa, which is hypothesized to be due to a currently unknown Dopamine Decarboxylase inhibitor in Mucuna Pruriens.[22] Standard Levodopa therapy for Parkinsons tends to pair it with Carbidopa to inhibit this enzyme and prolong the effects of Levodopa.

Levodopa and Mucuna Pruriens both seem effective. In isolation, Mucuna Pruriens may be better (due to the fact that it, as a herb, is never a molecule in isolation), but no studies exist comparing Mucuna to Levodopa and Carbidopa. The above studies suggest that Mucuna can hold its ground against standard Levodopa/Carbidopa therapy, but doesn't suggest it is better.


Edit3. Interactions with Hormones

3.1. Dopamine

Mucuna Pruriens supplementation has been shown to increase circulating dopamine levels in otherwise healthy male controls, possibly through the main ingredient of levodopa.[23]

3.2. Prolactin

Mucuna Pruriens has also been shown to suppress Prolactin levels in vivo, supposedly vicariously through Dopamine's ability to suppress prolactin secretion.[23][24]

3.3. Testosterone

Testosterone has been increased in healthy infertile men without any impairments in seminal parameters following 5g of Mucuna Pruriens extract over 3 months.[23] Testosterone was also increased in the seminal experimental groups (those with low sperm motility or count), and to a more significant degree. Testosterone levels in the control (no sperm problems, still infertile) group went from 4.49 ± 0.53 to 5.72 ± 0.36ng/mL. The hypothesized mechanism of action was through levodopa content, in which the increase in serum dopamine antagonizes (works against) prolactin's suppressive effect on libido and testosterone.[23]

In rats with type II diabetes, increases in testosterone have been seen with an oral dose of 200mg/kg bodyweight Mucuna Pruriens[25] or in blend with two other aphrodisiac herbs.[26]

Only one human study, and it increased testosterone in infertile men. It is not known whether it can increase testosterone in already fertile men.


Edit4. Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

4.1. Results of interventions

Mucuna Pruriens has been investigated in rats for its anti-diabetic effects. It appears to reduce spikes in blood glucose in response to a meal up to 8 hours after ingestion in a relatively dose-dependent manner, with descending efficacy.[27] At 7 different oral dosages ranging between 5-100mg/kg bodyweight, blood glucose was reduced by 18.6%-55.4%.[27] Previous studies on the subject matter noted clinically relevant benefits only after 15 days at an oral dose of 200mg/kg bodyweight in rats[28], the differences between the two studies, as mentioned by the chronologically later study, may be due to chance variation in growing conditions.[27]

Chronic usage of Mucuna for blood sugar reduction appears to be more potent than acute usage, although both are effective.[28] An oral dose of 5mg/kg bodyweight in rats is associated with a 55.3% reduction in blood sugar after 12 weeks, but acutely reduced blood sugar by 18.6%.[27] The efficacy of 50mg and 100mg/kg bodyweight are not significantly different from an oral dose of 5mg/kg bodyweight Glibenclamide (diabetic drug) in rats.[27] Potent effects on suppressing blood glucose may appear in as little as one month, although it seems to be somewhat maxed out at this time as evidence by one study investigating Mucuna supplementation at 1 and 2 months, and finding reductions of 38.01% and 40.41% at 1 and 2 months, respectively.[29]

The blood glucose lowering effect does not require diabetes as a pre-requisite, and is effective in normal rats as well.[30]

4.2. Diabetic management

Mucuna Pruriens shows efficacy in reducing the onset of diabetic cataracts in experimental rats,[29] its influences on nerve damage in diabetic rats does not appear to be significant.[31] Although Mucuna Pruriens may suppress a rise in urinary albumin levels associated with diabetes, it fails to prevent the hypertrophy of the kidneys associated with diabetes.[32]

4.3. Mechanisms and theories

When looking at liver enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, one study in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats noted that the normal suppression associated with diabetes was partially reversed with Mucuna Pruriens. Glucokinase decreased by 78.08% in diabetes, increased by 23.96% with Mucuna plus diabetes yet increased only 0.31% in normal rats. Hexokinase decreased by 51.93% with diabetes, increased 53.17% with Mucuna plus diabetes, and decreased by 6.89% in normal rats. Finally, Glucose-6-phosphatase was decreased by 60.36% in diabetes, increased by 128.47% in Mucuna plus diabetes, and increased 23.84% in normal rats (all effects at 200mg/kg bodyweight in rats).[28]

It is not known what causes these effects, but a hypothesis is the D-chiro inositol content.[13] With a content of about 2.1+/-0.2mg/g in Mucuna Pruriens, the dosages used in the above studies nears 7mg which is in the lower range of effectiveness in studies looking at pure D-chiro Inositol.[33][34]


Edit5. Interactions with Neurology

5.1. Parkinsons and Dopamine

Mucuna Pruriens is being investigated for its ability to alleviate symptoms of or to treat Parkinson's Disease. At this moment in time, only one double blind study has been conducted on humans.[19] A rather large dose of Mucuna, 15-30g daily (4.86% Levodopa; ended up being 500-1000mg Levodopa daily), was equally effective as standard Levodopa/Carbidopa (200mg/50mg) treatment in treating symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.[19] A rat study investigating the same question found that low dose Mucuna paired with benserazide (peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor) was able to suppress symptoms associated with Parkinsons while low dose Levodopa + Benserazide was not; additionally, long-term usage of Mucuna Pruriens was more effective than long-term usage of Levodopa in isolation, when both were contributing the same dose of Levodopa.[22] The differences seen were suggested to be due to a possible Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in Mucuna Pruriens. Other studies comparing Levodopa to Mucuna also note this difference, and suggest that one needs thrice as much Levodopa in isolation to match Levodopa from Mucuna.[15]

Beyond the double blind study mentioned, three open label studies in humans have been conducted.[35][36][37] Over a period of 12 weeks with 45g Mucuna Pruriens (1500mg Levodopa equivalent) was found to improve symptoms of Parkinsons.[37]

The levodopa content has carryover to other dopamine-related conditions, such as suppression of tardive/orofacial dyskinesia symptoms.[38] Doses as low as 48mg/kg Mucuna in rats (6% Levodopa) reduces tacrine-induced spontaneous jaw movements, an animal model for tardive dyskinesia.[15] This dosage is approximately 8mg/kg bodyweight after conversion to human dosages based on Body Surface Area, or 730mg daily for a 200lb person.

Mucuna Pruriens definitely appears to have interactions with Parkinson's Disease, although its exact role (treatment, adjunct therapy, preventative medicine) is not fully examined. It looks to be a highly promising herbal.

5.2. Memory and Cognition

Mucuna Pruriens has been involved in a blend of herbs (n=11) that increased memory retention in rats, but was too confounded to place any causation on Mucuna.[39]

5.3. Neuroprotection

One in vitro study suggests that Mucuna Pruriens extract increased the activity of complex I in brain mitochondria.[7]

Mucuna Pruriens was also found to restore levels of serotonin and catecholamines in the substantia nigra (area of the brain associated with Parkinson's), whereas isolated levodopa was not able to do this.[7]

5.4. Libido and Fertility

Mucuna Pruriens supplementation in infertile men is associated with increased sperm count and motility after taking 5g of dried powder for 3 months.[23] This same dose also increases various parameters of male semen indicative of increased fertility.[40][41]

In regards to testosterone, one study noted it could be increased over 3 months after ingestion of 5g Mucuna Pruriens seed powder daily; however, this study was conducted in infertile men and the increases seen did not exceed control.[40]

In rat studies looking at sexuality, mounting frequency is significantly increased at 150-250mg/kg bodyweight in rats;[42] a dose of 2.4-4mg/kg bodyweight in humans assuming standard Body Surface Area conversions.[43] Similar results have been seen in rats with type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin at a dose of 200mg/kg bodyweight[25] and the same dosage/animal model of diabetes was found to alleviate damage on penile tissue associated with diabetes, suggesting preservation of sexuality in response to a disease state.[44]

Appears to be effective in increasing sperm parameters and libido in studies on infertile men, but the evidence for its usage in otherwise healthy persons is less robust. It might be effective, but it really isn't known for sure.


Edit6. Protease Inhibition

6.1. Anti-venom

Mucuna Pruriens has been traditionally used as an anti-venom agent, specifically against the venom of Echis carinatus (a snake).[45][46]

This protection from venom appears to be mediated through a protease inhibitor; normally seen as a negative due to preventing absorption of dietary protein, the specific glycoprotein in Mucuna Pruriens can degrade the toxin from this snake as said toxins are quaternary proteins.[11][47][48] Mucuna Pruriens shows efficacy against EC toxin either when pre-loaded or as a single bolus in rats.[49]

6.2. Digestion

As a protease inhibitor, the glycoprotein from Mucuna can inhibit the two main human gastric protein digestive enzymes of trypsin and chymotrypsin in a dose-dependent manner.[50][11] It belongs to the Kunitz family of trypsin inhibitors.[38]

The glycoprotein inhibitor appears to be most stable at pHs of 4-7[11] and have structural similarities to the protease inhibitor found in soy.[47] The inhibitory amounts are maxed at 61.5% for trypsin and 47.9% for chymotrypsin, with slightly higher values for whole Mucuna protein extract rather than isolated glycoprotein.[11]

All inhibitory potential is lost at 100°C, and efficacy starts to be lost at 50°C, Increasing the pH to 9-12 can destroy the protein at temperatures of 75°C.[11] Protein digestability also increases when exposed to irradation in a dose-dependent manner.[12] Irradiation may decrease Manganese and Sodium content slightly and reduced caloric content on a basis of dry weight slightly.[12]

The above trypsin inhibitor is the same kind of 'evil' compound found in foods like soy that reduce protein absorption, and thus cooking Mucuna beans would be smart for the protein content. If you are buying powdered Mucuna Pruriens supplements, it would probably be prudent to look for roasted supplements, as cooking them normally destroys L-DOPA. The study on irradiation did not measure L-DOPA.


Edit7. Safety and Toxicity

One large double blind study noted no significant adverse effects from 15-30g of Mucuna Pruriens powder over the course of 12-20 weeks aside from one patient suffering from vomiting, which was deemed unrelated to the bioactivity of Mucuna but rather its digestability and palatability.[19]

In rats, doses of 32mg/kg or above are associated with 'some adverse side effects' (hyperventilation, reduced spontaneous motor activity, spontaneous erections) that appeared 1 hour after ingestion transiently, and doses up to 100mg/kg are free from more significant side effects for up to 12 weeks (study termination).[27]

7.1. Case studies

There were once reports of psychosis associated with Mucuna Pruriens ingestion (bean form), in which 203 cases of acute psychosis were recorded over a 6 week period during famine in Mozambique.[51] This was thought to be due to women (of which constituted 85% of the affected) eating raw beans prior to sufficient preparation, and the results may have been a combination of protein deficiency paired with Levodopa, Bufotenin and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (all of which are constituents of Mucuna Pruriens). It is highly unlikely these results can be extrapolated to first world supplementation.

References

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  2. Vadivel V, et al. Evaluation of velvet bean meal as an alternative protein ingredient for poultry feed. Animal. (2011)
  3. Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis. J Agric Food Chem. (2001)
  4. Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M. Studies on the incorporation of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) as an alternative protein source in poultry feed and its effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod. (2010)
  5. Tomita-Yokotani K, et al. Distribution of L-DOPA in the root of velvet bean plant (Mucuna pruriens L.) and gravity. Biol Sci Space. (2004)
  6. Misra L, Wagner H. Extraction of bioactive principles from Mucuna pruriens seeds. Indian J Biochem Biophys. (2007)
  7. Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens. Phytother Res. (2004)
  8. Misra L, Wagner H. Alkaloidal constituents of Mucuna pruriens seeds. Phytochemistry. (2004)
  9. Ghosal S, Singh S, Bhattacharya SK. Alkaloids of Mucuna pruries chemistry and pharmacology. Planta Med. (1971)
  10. Carboxylesterases from the seeds of an underutilized legume, Mucuna pruriens; isolation, purification and characterization
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  12. Bhat R, Sridhar KR, Seena S. Nutritional quality evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens) exposed to gamma irradiation. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2008)
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  14. The phytochemistry, toxicology, and food potential of velvetbean (Mucuna Adans. spp., Fabaceae)
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  24. n vitro studies on the regulation of prolactin secretion in the bullfrog pituitary gland
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  28. Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vats V. The effect of Momordica charantia and Mucuna pruriens in experimental diabetes and their effect on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Phytother Res. (2002)
  29. Rathi SS, et al. Prevention of experimental diabetic cataract by Indian Ayurvedic plant extracts. Phytother Res. (2002)
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  32. Grover JK, et al. Traditional Indian anti-diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol. (2001)
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  37. [No authors listed. An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson's disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP-200 in Parkinson's Disease Study Group. J Altern Complement Med. (1995)
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  40. Gupta A, et al. A proton NMR study of the effect of Mucuna pruriens on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males. J Pharm Biomed Anal. (2011)
  41. Shukla KK, et al. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2010)
  42. Suresh S, Prithiviraj E, Prakash S. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
  43. Guidance for Industry: Estimating the Maximum Safe Starting Dose in Initial Clinical Trials for Therapeutics in Adult Healthy Volunteers
  44. Suresh S, Prakash S. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on oxidative stress-induced structural alteration of corpus cavernosum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. J Sex Med. (2011)
  45. Houghton PJ, Osibogun IM. Flowering plants used against snakebite. J Ethnopharmacol. (1993)
  46. Soares AM, et al. Medicinal plants with inhibitory properties against snake venoms. Curr Med Chem. (2005)
  47. Guerranti R, et al. Protection of Mucuna pruriens seeds against Echis carinatus venom is exerted through a multiform glycoprotein whose oligosaccharide chains are functional in this role. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2004)
  48. Guerranti R, et al. Effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on activation of prothrombin by Echis carinatus venom. J Ethnopharmacol. (2001)
  49. Guerranti R, et al. Proteomic analysis of the pathophysiological process involved in the antisnake venom effect of Mucuna pruriens extract. Proteomics. (2008)
  50. Characterization of the seed proteins of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) from Nigeria
  51. Outbreak of acute toxic psychosis attributed to Mucuna pruriens

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