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Modafinil is an awakefulness enchancing drug that was created for treatment of daytime sleep related disorders such as Narcolepsy. It seems to have benefits for cognition via increasing levels of stimulatory neurotransmitters in the brain, and is used recreationally as a smart-drug.
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2-[(Diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl]acetamide, Provigil, Modalert, Modapro, Alertex
Standard dosages are 100-200mg, or perhaps 4mg/kg bodyweight, taken in a sleep-deprived state for best effects.
Modafinil is a pharmaceutical designed for usage in sleep-related disorders, and is related to improved mental function in a sleep deprived state.
The sleep wake cycle of the brain is a balance of the 'ascending arousal system' consisting of arousing neurotransmitters (catecholamines, acetylcholine, orexin, etc.) and the neurotransmitters (GABA, Galanin) which act to suppress stimulation and promote sleep. Varying levels of arousing and depressing neurotransmitters form an 'on-off' switch for arousal and sleep.
Overall regulation of the wakefulness and rest cycle seems to be in part due to the circadian rhythm, mediated by the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN), and in part due to homeostatic needs for sleep that are gained during wakefulness.
Modafinil seems to be able to interact with a multitude of stimulatory systems including serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, glutaminergic, histaminergic, and orexinergic pathways; and also influences GABAergic pathways.
Modafinil seems to be able to increase extracellular levels of dopamine in the rat nucelar accumbens and prefrontal cortex and the dog caudate nucleus. It has been shown to occupy both the dopamine and noradrenaline receptors (in the striatum) and prevention of dopamine receptor occupancy abolishes the sleep-promoting effects in mice, suggesting this mechanism of action is crucial to the sleep-promoting effects.dopamine release and alters the subjective properties of stimulants|published=2007 Jul 30|authors=Dopheide MM, Morgan RE, Rodvelt KR, Schachtman TR, Miller DK|journal=Eur J Pharmacol]dopamine release and alters the subjective properties of stimulants]
In those with faulty orexin levels (narcoleptics), modafinil shows benefit possibly by acting on orexic neurons directly. This effect is more potent in orexin-knockout mice than in normal mice, and the effects of modafinil on the orexin system of healthy persons is unknown.
Modafinil has been found in healthy persons to aid in cognitive function in a fatigued state (after a shift of work).
Modafinil seems to disrupt the ability of one to voluntarily fall asleep.
(Common misspellings for Modafinil include modafinal, modifinal, modafanil, provignal, provignil)
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