Krill Oil

Krill oil is a mixture of fatty acids high in EPA and DHA (Fish Oil fatty acids) in the form of phospholipids, mostly as Phosphatidylcholine; it appears to be better absorbed than fish oil, may be more cardioprotective, and has some unique (unexplored) fat burning effects.

This page features 49 unique references to scientific papers.


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Krill Oil is an oil that is derived from krill; it contains the same two fatty acids that Fish Oil contains (Eicosapentaenoic Acid, or EPA, and Docosahexaenoic Acid, DHA). However, a large portion of the EPA and DHA in krill is in the form of a phospholipid, with a phosphate group on the end of the fatty acid. This results in higher bioavailability (rate of absorption) of krill oil, and thus the same effects of Fish Oil can be seen with Krill Oil but at a lower dose.

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Also Known As

Euphausiacea superba


Do Not Confuse With

Fish Oil


Things to Note

  • For the most part, any 'things to note' on the Fish Oil page would also apply here due to sharing similar bioactives

Is a Form of


Goes Well With

  • Due to including Fish Oil fatty acids in the form of Phosphatidylcholine, krill oil holds the potential to be synergisic with any compound demonstrated to be synergistic with those two supplements

Caution Notice

Examine.com Medical Disclaimer

Supplementation of Krill oil tends to be in the range of 1-3g daily (overall oil weight), which has been used in the clinical trials of krill oil supplementation.

If supplementing in accordance with the omega-3 content, the omega-3 content that is supplemented from krill oil should be equal to approximately 2/3rds that used with basic Fish Oil supplementation to account for the increased absorption. If one were to normally supplement 1000mg EPA plus DHA, then 660mg of EPA and DHA from krill oil would be equivalent.


The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what effect Krill Oil has in your body, and how strong these effects are.
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
EffectChange
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
CC-Reactive Protein

Notable

A decrease in C-Reactive protein has only been noted in rheumatoid arthritis (none in obese but healthy persons) but reached 30% within 30 days of 500mg krill oil, a very... show

CTriglycerides

Minor

A decrease in triglycerides has been noted with krill oil

CTotal Cholesterol

Minor

A decrease in total cholesterol has been noted with krill oil, to a fairly normal degree (reduction is lessened from the remarkable increase in HDL)

CHDL-C

Notable

Although one study suggest no such increase (healthy persons), the increase seen in hyperlipidemics exceeded 50% and was remarkable; requires replication

CLDL-C

Notable

A decrease in LDL-C has been noted with krill oil, which appears to be to quite a significant degree

CWeight

No significant influence on weight over time

CBlood Glucose

No significant influence on blood glucose levels

CInsulin

No significant influence on fasting insulin levels

C2-Arachidonoylglycerol Acid

Minor

On obese subjects, this endocannabinoid has been found to be reduced somewhat

CSymptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Notable

500mg Krill oil reduced symptoms of osteoarthritis up to 30%, which is a pretty significant effect size that requires future research to investigate.

CFunctionality in Elderly or Injured

Minor

The increase in functionality appears to be secondary to reductions in symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

CSymptoms of PMS

Minor

PMS and its symptoms (breast tenderness, stress, and irritability mostly) have been reduced with krill oil supplementation

CBreast Tenderness

Minor

Secondary to reducing symptoms of PMS, a reduction in breast tenderness has been reported

CIrritability

Minor

Irritability as a side-effect of PMS has been reduced with supplemental krill oil

CStress

Minor

Stress as a side-effect of PMS has been reduced with supplemental krill oil

DLipid Peroxidation

Despite containing PUFAs, no significant changes in lipid peroxidation

DApolipoprotein A

Minor

A decrease in Apolipoprotein A has been noted with krill oil supplementation

DApolipoprotein B

No significant influence on Apolipoprotein B noted


Disagree? Join the Krill Oil Discussion

Table of Contents:


Edit1. Sources and Composition

1.1. Sources

Euphausiacea (commonly called 'Krill', which refers to the entire Euphausiacea family but can come from the atlantic or pacific in which the species are referred to as superba and pacifica, respectively[1]) is a family of small sea creature (crustacean) which confers some dietary eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two fatty acids that are the active components of Fish Oil and can increase plasma levels of EPA and DHA.[2] Krill tends to have similar DHA content to oily fish with a slightly higher EPA content (per weight basis).[1] The krill itself does have a respectable and bioavailable protein content (11.9-15.4% total animal weight; lipids consist of 0.5-3.6% total weight[1] and 12-50% dry weight[3]), but the oil itself is not a Protein Supplement due to processing most amino acids out of the oil; nutritionally, krill is similar to shrimp.[1]

What tends to make krill unique from fish oil is the collection of fatty acids in the form of phospholipids rather than triglycerides, which is a phenomena that separates crustacean animals from fish in general;[1] while crustaceans have been reported to have up to 65% of total fatty acids bound as phospholipids[4] krill has been quantified in the 28-58% range.[5][6]

1.2. Composition

Krill oil fatty acids tend to be diacylglycerides (two fatty acids bound to a glycerol molecule) rather than triglycerides, and due to binding to a phosphatidic acid group at the final binding site the structure is a phospholipid in nature.[7]

Fish oil supplementation tends to be triglycerides while Lovaza (brand name) are ethyl esters.

Structurally, the fatty acids are bound in phospholipid form. While they confer the same benefits as the fatty acids, there are some differences in the absorption kinetics and the phospholipid itself may also be bioactive

The fatty acid breakdown of krill oil appears to be 26.1-30.7% saturated fatty acids, 24.2-25.9% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 34.1-48.5% omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; the final 2.5% consists of omega-6 fatty acids.[8][1] The individual fatty acid breakdown of krill oil (not considering the structural form) is:

  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n3) at 19% (fish oil at 27%)[8]
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n3) at 10.9% (fish oil at 24%)[8]
  • Myristic acid (14:0) at 7.2% (fish oil at 3.2%)[8]
  • Palmitic acid (16:0) at 21.8% (fish oil at 7.8%)[8]
  • Stearic acid (18:0) at 1.3% (fish oil at 2.6%)[8]
  • Arachidonic acid (20:0) at less than 0.1% (fish oil at 0.6%)[8]
  • Behenic acid (22:0) at 0.2% (fish oil at 0.4%)[8]
  • 16:1 n7 at 5.4% (fish oil 3.9%)[8]
  • 18:1, with n5,7, and 9 collectively 18.3% (fish oil 6.1%)[8]
  • 18:3 n3 at 1.0% (fish oil at 0.5%)[8]
  • 18:4 n3 at 1.6% (fish oil at 1.9%)[8]
Krill oil is high in the two fatty acids commonly said to underlie the benefits of fish oil, although on a per weight basis they appear to be a tad lower than fish oil due to a higher percentage of saturated fats in krill oil; krill oil is low in omega-6 fatty acids and has a respectable monounsaturated fat content which is fairly balanced with the omega-3 and saturated content

Of these fatty acids, between 28-58% are bound as phospholipids[5][6] and appear to be mostly Phosphatidylcholine (48[5] to 80%[9] of various combinations[10][11]), with some phosphatidylethanolamine (1.5-8%[12][5]) and phosphatidylglycerol (1%[5]); some studies reported a high (21-24%) unidentifiable component[5] which is possibly Phosphatidylserine but not confirmed to be so. The overall phosphatidylcholine content has been calculated once to be 34+/-5g per 100g oil.[10] Phosphatidylinositol appears to be negligible.[12]

Some diglycerides are further bound to cholesterol (0.79-4.65% total lipids)[6] and krill oil has been confirmed to not be a source of sphingomyelin like calf brain is.[13][12]

Approximately a bit more than half of the fatty acids are bound in the form of phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most prominent one. Other phospholipids and variants of mono/diacylglycerol molecules are also present, but likely to play minor roles

Other components of krill oil that may also confer bioactivity include:

  • 66.1mg of cholesterol has been detected per 100g krill, which is about a third of shrimp but similar to other fish products.[1] Other estimates suggest a range of 17-76.3mg/g in the oil 62.1-72.6mg/100g in the krill itself.[1]
  • Astaxanthin content has been reported[14][15] which is half the 3R,3'R configuration[16][15] and may be esterified (up to 95% of astaxanthin.[16]) Total carotenoids reach 878-1016mcg/g of the oil[17][18] and both β-carotene and vitamin A are negligible (latter at 91mcg/g, former undetectable[17])
  • Vitamin E[19]
  • A novel flavonoid, reported to be similar to 6,8-di-c-glucosylluteolin (secondhand reports)[19][14]
There appear to be a phenolic and cholesterol content in krill oil as well, with the Astaxanthin content of the oil likely being too low to matter as a supplement itself (ie. the benefits on the astaxanthin page may not apply to orally ingested krill oil)

Fluoride contamination is thought to be an issue with krill oil supplementation as the exoskeletal of krill is very high in naturally occurring fluoride (350mg/100g) and while the tissue is low, upon death fluoride may migrate from the exoskeleton into the meat (up to 9mg/100g has been reported) if the shell is not immediately removed.[1][20][21] This fluoride is well absorbed by mammals,[22] but isn't thought to be a concern with immediate removal of the exoskeleton as over 99% of fluoride is localized there.[20] It is uncertain how or if this is a concern to krill oil supplementation.

There is likely to be low risk of mercury in krill oil sourced EPA and DHA, mainly due to positive correlations between fish size and predatory status with mercury content (putting fish such as shark, albacore tuna, and swordfish high in mercury concentrations with prawn, herring, and small fish lower); however, this does not appear to be directly assessed.

There is a logical basis for worry about fluoride contamination, but the exact level of concern towards krill oil supplements is not known. This concern can be heavily alleviated by proper processing and handling practises of krill

1.3. Properties

Freezing of krill appears to reduce the phospholipid content by up to 15% after 30 days of storage following freezing with about half of the phospholipids being destroyed after 7 months.[6]

Due to the astaxanthin content, the fatty acids in krill oil appear to be more resistant to oxidation as astaxanthin appears to be destroyed sacrificially.[23]


Edit2. Pharmacokinetics

2.1. Bioavailability

When testing the bioavailability of various forms of fish oils, Krill oil appears to be the most well absorbed. In a study with 1680mg oils, Krill oil elicited an AUC of 80.03+/-34.71% compared to Fish Oil triglycerides of 59.78+/-36.75% and fish oil ethyl esters at 47.53+/-38.42% (33% better absorbed than fish oil, 68% better absorbed than ethyl esters).[7]

Krill oil appears to be better absorbed than fish oil and fish oil ethyl esters

2.2. Serum

Oral intake of krill oil (500mg krill oil conferring 90.5mg combined EPA/DHA) has been confirmed to increase plasma DHA and EPA, as well as the intermediate (docosapentaenoic acid) and arachidonic acid; similar to fish oil.[8]


Edit3. Neurology

3.1. Neuroprotection

Although not directly linked to Krill oil, it appears that supplemental DHA (3% of lipids) in the form of phospholipids (37.2% Phosphatidylcholine and 36.6% lyso-PC) appears to have more antioxidative effects in the brains of rats injected with the toxin streptozotocin relative to DHA in triglyceride form (Fish Oil supplementation).[24]

May be more neuroprotective than fish oil supplementation on a gram per gram basis as assessed by its antioxidant effects

3.2. Endocannabinoids

2-arachidonoylglycerol is an endocannabinoid that is increased in obese subjects (alongside anandamide)[25][26][27] and can be induced during high fat animal feeding[28] yet appears to be reduced in obese subjects following consumption of 2g of krill oil (216mg EPA and 90mg DHA) for 4 weeks while anandamide is unaffected;[29] this reduction is also noted in rats.[28] These endocannabinoid molecules are derived from arachidonic acid, and the lowering of plasma arachidonic acid with Fish Oil fatty acids (EPA and DHA[30]) is thought to underlie the observed effects.

3.3. Memory and Learning

Krill oil is thought to confer memory promoting properties due to consisting of both Fish Oil fatty acids and Phosphatidylcholine, both of which have individually been linked to a betterment of memory and learning; some authors suspect the Astaxanthin content also plays a role[31] due to its individual anxiolytic[32] and cognitive enhancing properties.[33]

Phospholipids from krill have been noted to increased performance in a radial maze test in adult rats at 301-420mg/kg EPA+DHA associated with neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.[9] This study noted that 100mg/kg EPA+DHA was ineffective.[9] Elsewhere, adult rats of both sexes given krill oil at 1.25% of the diet for six weeks (200mg per rat, or 1,000-1,333mg/kg) noted a cognitive enhancing effect (as assessed by lever discrimination) with mixed antidepressive effects that did not outperform Imipramine.[31]

Krill oil is linked to an improvement in memory in adult rats without overt cognitive degeneration, but requires quite a high oral dose for this to occur with the human equivalence exceeding 160mg/kg bodyweight

3.4. PMS

Menstrual cramping appears to be associated with a release of arachidonic acid following the menstration-induced reduction in progesterone which triggers a flux of prostaglandins and leukotrienes in the uterus;[34] this increase causes localized production of COX-mediated metabolites of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2 and E2) which cause vasoconstriction and myometrial contractions that underlie cramping.[34] It is though that the Fish Oil fatty acids of EPA and DHA may reduce the physical symptoms of PMS via competing with arachidonic acid in producing less inflammatory prostaglandins.[35]

One study has assessed the effects of 2g Krill oil daily over 90 days in women with diagnosed PMS, and found that supplementation caused a time-dependent improvement in all measured symptoms (breast tenderness, bloating, stress, irritability, depression, weight gain, etc.) that outperformed the control of fish oil despite having similar EPA and DHA content.[36] This study noted that both fish oil and krill oil were effective on physical symptoms of bloating, cramping, and weight gain although only krill oil had neural benefit.[36]

Fish oil fatty acids in general are thought to alleviate some symptoms of PMS (mostly related to cramping), and while krill oil has once been noted to be effective in this regard it has also reduced neural symptoms of PMS such as irritability and outperformed fish oil


Edit4. Cardiovascular Health

4.1. Cardiac Tissue

Supplemental krill oil has been confirmed to increase the omega-3 content of cardiac tissue in rats and pretreatment of krill oil prior to myocardial infarction can reduce the subsequent cardiac hypertrophy; rehabilitative supplementation does not appear as effective.[37]

4.2. Triglycerides

It has been noted that krill oil supplementation (3,000mg) has roughly comparable effects on lipoproteins and triglycerides as fish oil (1,600mg), although this study noted null results with both interventions in otherwise healthy persons.[8] Similarly, supplementation of 2,000mg krill oil daily for 21 days during a 'Daniel Fast' (vegan, plant based diet[38][39]) failed to modify the diet-induced reduction in HDL-C in otherwise healthy persons.[40]

In hyperlipidemic persons, krill oil supplementation at 1,000-1,500mg daily for 90 days has been implicated in increasing HDL-C (42.76-43.92%) and reducing LDL-C (32.03-35.70%), total cholesterol (13.71-13.44%), and triglycerides (11.03-11.89%) with all benefits being slightly greater with 2-3g daily;[14] the improvement in HDL-C reached 59.64% and the reduction in LDL-C reached 39.15% at 3g daily, and all treatments greatly outperformed the reference drug of Fish Oil (3g daily).[14]


Edit5. Inflammation and Immunology

5.1. Joints

In a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (collagen injections; 0.44% of the diet as EPA+DHA from krill oil said to correspond to 1.8g in humans) was able to reduce paw thickness and arthritic score to a level greater than fish oil at the same oral EPA+DHA dose.[41] No measured cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β) appeared to be altered.[41]

When tested in humans, supplementation of krill oil at 300mg daily for 30 days was able to significantly improve WOMAC ratings in the range of 20.3-28.9% (depending on subscale) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.[42]

May confer benefit to rheumatoid arthritis based on the animal research, which is a mechanism shared with fish oil. It appears to be better than fish oil, but this may simply be due to better absorption (and the difference becoming insignificant with higher fish oil intake relative to krill oil)


Edit6. Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

6.1. Interventions

Feeding rats a high fat diet paired with or without 2.5% krill oil is able to attenuate, but not abolish, the increases in glucose while effectively preventing the increase in insulin from occurring[43] which has been noted elsewhere in rats on a high fat fed diet[44] with a bit more efficacy in oil with a higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and phospholipid content.[45]


Edit7. Interactions with Organ Systems

7.1. Liver

Krill oil has been noted to have differential effects relative to Fish Oil in the liver, where after supplementation of the diet with either krill oil (1.5%) or fish oil (1.1%) with similar EPA+DHA concentrations (0.29-0.31%) noted that Krill oil was able to activate 4,892 analyzed genes (20,118 assessed overall) whereas fish oil activated 192.[46] Both treatments seem to suppress hepatic glucose production, but only krill oil suppressed lipogenic genes (SREBF1, MLXIPL) while the increase in activity of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway was noted to be a decrease with krill oil.[46] Elsewhere, krill oil has been noted to increase β-oxidation of fatty acids whereas fish oil is ineffective.[47]

There is evidence for different effects between Krill oil and fish oil on the liver that extend beyond merely being a better absorbed form of the fatty acids.

When a high fat diet is paired with 2.5% krill oil in rats, the increase in overall weight gain and liver weight gain is abolished (1.25% merely attenuates[44]) which is thought to be secondary to a reduction (55%) of citrate influx into the mitochondria and subsequent fatty acid synthesis (related to less Vmax of the transporter) and increase in hepatic fat oxidation (3.4-fold more than high fat control, 2.1-fold more than normal control).[43] This reduced rate of the tricarboxylate transporter has been noted elsewhere, which resulted in a decrease in lipogenesis in the liver.[48]

In animals, krill oil has been demonstrated to reduce liver fat accumulation during overfeeding via reducing the rate of a transporter involved in lipogenesis. It appears to do so to a degree greater than fish oil even when fatty acids (EPA and DHA) are controlled

7.2. Intestines

5% krill oil in the diet of rats given chemical-induced ulcerative colitis (via dextran sulfate sodium) was able to confer protective effects which were thought to be secondary to reducing inflammatory events.[49]

May be of use against ulcerative colitis; has not been directly compared against fish oil (to assess comparative potency)

References

  1. Tou JC, Jaczynski J, Chen YC. Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits. Nutr Rev. (2007)
  2. Maki KC, et al. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. Nutr Res. (2009)
  3. Saether O, Ellingsen TE, Mohr V. Lipids of North Atlantic krill. J Lipid Res. (1986)
  4. Lipid conversion factors for calculating fatty acid contents of foods
  5. Lipid composition of two species of antarctic krill: Euphausia superba and E. crystallorophias
  6. Lipid composition of fresh and frozen-stored krill
  7. Schuchardt JP, et al. Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations--a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oil. Lipids Health Dis. (2011)
  8. Ulven SM, et al. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids. (2011)
  9. Krill-derived Phospholipids Rich in n-3 Fatty Acid Improve Spatial Memory in Adult Rats
  10. Winther B, et al. Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba. Lipids. (2011)
  11. Le Grandois J, et al. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species. J Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  12. Zhou L, et al. Determination of phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species in various food matrices by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2). Anal Bioanal Chem. (2012)
  13. Zhou L, et al. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of sphingomyelin species from calf brain, ox liver, egg yolk, and krill oil. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  14. Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev. (2004)
  15. Moretti VM, et al. Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source. Food Addit Contam. (2006)
  16. Natural occurrence of enantiomeric and Meso astaxanthin 7-crustaceans including zooplankton
  17. BATHAM E, et al. Performed vitamin A in marine Crustacea. Biochem J. (1951)
  18. Vitamin A and carotenoids in certain invertebrates. III. Euphausiacea
  19. [No authors listed. Krill oil. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. (2010)
  20. Fluoride in tissues of Krill Euphausia superba Dana and Meganyctiphanes norvegica M. Sars in relation to the moult cycle
  21. Possibilities Of Processing And Marketing Of Products Made From Antarctic Krill Fao Fisheries Technical Paper 268 (1985)
  22. Tenuta-Filho A, Alvarenga RC. Reduction of the bioavailability of fluoride from Antarctic krill by calcium. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (1999)
  23. Oxidative stability of carotenoid pigments and polyunsaturated fatty acids in microparticulate diets containing krill oil for nutrition of marine fish larvae
  24. Hiratsuka S, et al. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2008)
  25. Sipe JC, et al. Biomarkers of endocannabinoid system activation in severe obesity. PLoS One. (2010)
  26. Di Marzo V, et al. Changes in plasma endocannabinoid levels in viscerally obese men following a 1 year lifestyle modification programme and waist circumference reduction: associations with changes in metabolic risk factors. Diabetologia. (2009)
  27. Annuzzi G, et al. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients. Lipids Health Dis. (2010)
  28. Piscitelli F, et al. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2011)
  29. Banni S, et al. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2011)
  30. Banni S, Di Marzo V. Effect of dietary fat on endocannabinoids and related mediators: consequences on energy homeostasis, inflammation and mood. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2010)
  31. Wibrand K, et al. Enhanced cognitive function and antidepressant-like effects after krill oil supplementation in rats. Lipids Health Dis. (2013)
  32. Nishioka Y, et al. The antianxiety-like effect of astaxanthin extracted from Paracoccus carotinifaciens. Biofactors. (2011)
  33. Zhang X, et al. Impact of astaxanthin-enriched algal powder of Haematococcus pluvialis on memory improvement in BALB/c mice. Environ Geochem Health. (2007)
  34. Current Status of the Etiology and Management of Dysmenorrhea in Adolescence
  35. Priddy AR, Killick SR. Eicosanoids and ovulation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (1993)
  36. Sampalis F, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Altern Med Rev. (2003)
  37. Fosshaug LE, et al. Krill oil attenuates left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction in rats. Lipids Health Dis. (2011)
  38. Bloomer RJ, et al. Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women. Lipids Health Dis. (2010)
  39. Bloomer RJ, et al. A 21 day Daniel Fast improves selected biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in men and women. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2011)
  40. Trepanowski JF, et al. A 21-day Daniel fast with or without krill oil supplementation improves anthropometric parameters and the cardiometabolic profile in men and women. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  41. Ierna M, et al. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. (2010)
  42. Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. (2007)
  43. Ferramosca A, et al. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats. PLoS One. (2012)
  44. Tandy S, et al. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice. J Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  45. Li DM, et al. Effects of krill oil intake on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. J Sci Food Agric. (2013)
  46. Burri L, et al. Differential effects of krill oil and fish oil on the hepatic transcriptome in mice. Front Genet. (2011)
  47. Vigerust NF, et al. Krill oil versus fish oil in modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mice transgenic for TNF-. Eur J Nutr. (2012)
  48. Ferramosca A, Conte L, Zara V. A krill oil supplemented diet reduces the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the cytosolic lipogenic enzymes in rats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). (2012)
  49. Grimstad T, et al. Dietary supplementation of krill oil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental ulcerative colitis in rats. Scand J Gastroenterol. (2012)

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