Euonymus Alatus does not appear to have much evidence for it at this time, and mostly it is in the exploratory stages of figuring out what the main bioactives are. It appears to be a very good source of the standard flavonoid compounds, and some of them (Quercetin in particular) have a variety of different conjugates. Additionally, a large variety of lignans exist in the stems and may be bioactive.
Surprisingly, not too many unique molecules have been isolated from this herb; the benefits seem to be due to the common ingredients that are found in many different herbs and foods.
Currently, the only evidence that can be somewhat applied to daily life is the inhibition of α-glucosidase seen in vitro and once replicated in rats. This may lessen the spike in blood glucose in response to a starchy meal, but by no means is Euonymus Alatus remarkably potent or novel in this regard; the active components here seem to be ones that are found in many other plants as well.
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Not enough evidence exists at this moment in time to recommend an effective dose
Euonymus alatus (Gui Jeon Wu) is a plant of which its stems have been used traditionally for cancer treatment. And has also been used for blood circulation and eliminating blood clots, reducing pain, and treating dysmenorrhea in Asian medicine.
The bioactives that are fairly unique to Euonymus Alatus include:
With more common bioactives (found in many herbs) being:
The total flavonoid content of Euonymus Alatus is 235.7mg/kg fresh weight.
Euonymus Alatus extract appears to be effective in inhibiting the aromatase enzyme in myometrial and leiomyomal cells (uterus related). Whether it affects other aromatase enzymes is not known, but if it does it may increase circulating testosterone levels.
Some flavonoid compounds from Euonymus Alatus appear to prevent triglyceride accumulation into differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes, with most potency at 25uM concentration coming from quercetin 3,7-dirhamnoside (79.1% of control; set at 100%), hyperoside (71.3%), kaempferitrin (62.3%), catechin lactone A (79.9%) and dehydrodicatechin A (70.2%); hyperoside has been reported with this inhibitory potency previously but may not be the consensus due to differing data elsewhere. The potency of these compounds is comparable to 25uM of Resveratrol, with kaempferitrin trending to be more potent.
Both Kaempferol and Quercetin in Euonymus Alatus appear to be able to bind to the PPARγ receptor too weakly to induce adipocyte proliferation, and may block the pro-adipogenic effects of PPARγ agonists such as Rosiglitazone due to higher affinity (thus acting as receptor modulators). Despite these mechanisms, both appear to enhance glucose uptake into adipocytes.
Euonymus alatus methanolic extract has inhibitory potential on the α-glucosidase enzyme with an IC50 value of 272µg/mL (in a yeast assay), and of 8 compounds purified from the plant for interactions with the α-glucosidase noted that 6 compounds had more efficacy than the active control Arcabose (IC50 679.7µM) including catechin (119.1µM), quercetin 3,7-dirhamnoside (39.6µM), hyperoside (31.6µM), kaempferitrin (23.0µM), catechin lactone A (71.8µM) and dehydrodicatechin A (102.5µM). Another compound (quercitrin) was found inactive on this assay but has been noted elsewhere to have an IC50 of 38.4 µM.
Components have inhibitory potential on alpha-glucosidase, a carbohydrate digestive enzyme
When 500mg/kg of Euonymus Alatus (methanolic extract) is given to rats alongside a 1g/kg bolus of starch and having blood measured for the next 4 hours, supplementation was able to reduce the subsequent AUC of glucose by 25.5% relative to starch control; fecal analysis was not performed.
Inhibition of starch absorption has been noted to occur in rats following concomitant ingestion of Euonymus Alatus and starch
17.2mg/kg of an ethyl acetate fraction with a high flavonoid concentration (bioequivalent to 400mg/kg dry weight) is able to, over 7 days, reduce fasting blood glucose slightly in normal mice and more significantly in alloxan-induced diabetic mice; either of equal potency to or lesser than the active control of 140mg/kg Metformin (relatively low dose of Metformin). Over 4 weeks, this extraction was more effective than 140mg/kg Metformin in reducing fasting blood glucose in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. One other study compared Euonymus Alatus (700mg/kg ethanolic extract) against Metformin (250mg/kg) and noted that while both were effective in reducing fasting blood glucose that Metformin was more potent.
Euonymus Alatus (80% methanolic extract) can inhibit nF-kB activation at 10-30ug/mL with an IC50 of IC50 value of 11.83μg/mL, via inhibiting the IKKβ pathway. Anti-inflammatory effects in this same in vitro model (RAW264.7 macrophage activation via LPS) have been noted to occur with all lignan compounds that were not dilignans (although flavonoids and isoprenoids may also be active) and the methanolic extract also appears to inhibit JNK1 (40.6%), JNK2 (28.7%), and JNK3 (32.9%) activation.
General anti-inflammatory properties in macrophage stimulation tests
At least one study has noted that, without incubation with LPS or another pro-inflammatory insult, that Euonymus Alatus was able to increase nF-kB activity and inflammatory biomarkers vicariously though recombinant IFNγ.
In cultured rat hepatocytes (liver cells) Euonymus Alatus appears to both exert direct anti-oxidant abilities and enhance anti-oxidant enzymes.
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