Sometimes referred to as liquid gold, Coffee is the most popular source of Caffeine in North America behind only teas worldwide. Also a source of tons of nutrients, and most recently touted as a source of Chlorogenic Acid and ferulic acid. Does not like your wishes for white teeth.

This page features 7 unique references to scientific papers.

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Coffee, black gold, 'poison of choice'. Whatever you call it, it is the world's second most popular non-water beverage (second only to all forms of tea combined) and consumed world-wide.

Coffee can be seen as a nutritional product as it is a mixture of many nutriceutical compounds that all have individual purposes. Coffee can also exert effects like any supplement or drug and rival some of them in potency. It is not just an inert food product, coffee is a supplement.

Also Known As

Liquid gold

Do Not Confuse With

Caffeine (major constituent), Chlorogenic Acid (other major compound)

Black coffee is a pretty good compound for long term health surprisingly. I mention 'black' coffee as although adding a bit of sugar and cream/milk is fine, many people put in way too much (I have worked at Tim Hortons, I know the monstrosity that is a Quad/Quad)

Kurtis Frank

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects coffee has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
D Adiponectin


An increase in adiponectin has been associated with coffee consumption



An increase in HDL-C is noted with coffee ingestion

D Inflammation


A decrease in some inflammatory cytokines has been noted with coffee ingestion

D Total Cholesterol


An increase in cholesterol has been noted in one study which attributed most of the increase to HDL

D Insulin Sensitivity

No significant influences on insulin sensitivity with caffeinated coffee

(Constitients found here[1])

  • Caffeine, sometimes at 1% total weight of coffee beans.[2]
  • Chlorogenic Acid, up to 7% total weight of coffee beans[2] but found to a higher level in Green Coffee Extract
  • Chlorogenic Lactone
  • Caffeic Acid
  • Nicotinic Acid
  • N-methylpyridinium compounds[3]
  • Cholinergic compounds
  • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)
  • Trigonelline, up to 1% of coffee beans by weight.[2]
  • Pyrogallol[4]
  • Catechol[4]
  • Melanodin structures, or small phenolics bound to sugars[5][6]

Beans also tend to have: 13% oil content by weight, 13% protein content by weight, 15% hemicellulose and 18% holocellulose, 2% lignan, 4% ash, 3% pectin, 7% sucrose and 1% reducing sugars.[2]

Doses of all compounds vary on bean quality, length to initiation of processing, type of processing and preparation method, and length of time processed.


  1. Oka K Pharmacological bases of coffee nutrients for diabetes prevention . Yakugaku Zasshi. (2007)
  2. Ramalakshmi K, Raghavan B Caffeine in coffee: its removal. Why and how . Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (1999)
  3. Kotyczka C, et al Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers . Mol Nutr Food Res. (2011)
  4. Rubach M, et al Multi-parametric approach to identify coffee components that regulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion . Mol Nutr Food Res. (2012)
  5. Moreira AS, et al Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts . Food Funct. (2012)
  6. Fogliano V, Morales FJ Estimation of dietary intake of melanoidins from coffee and bread . Food Funct. (2011)
  7. Kempf K, et al Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial . Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)

(Common misspellings for Coffee include cofee, coffie, koffee, koffe, kofe, cofe, cofi, kofi)

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