Bladderwrack

Bladderwrack is a species of seaweed known as Fucus vesiculosus that serves as a foodstuff and a source of Fucoxanthin, it is though to increase the metabolism via the thyroid but that is due to fixing iodine deficiencies historically.

This page features 56 unique references to scientific papers.

Confused about what actually Works?
Check Out The Supplement-References Guide

   

Confused about Supplements? Get Your Questions Answered Immediately

In Progress

This page on Bladderwrack is currently marked as in-progress. We are still compiling research.

You can help contribute by:



Bladderwrack (formal name Fucus Vesiculosis) is a brown seaweed which is a good source of iodine (the mineral needed for proper thyroid function) and of various L-fucose compounds.

Said L-fucose compounds can be seen as generally being anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-carcinogenic. There are also some implications of them being anti-viral and anti-diabetic.

Benefits can be seen from ingesting brown seaweeds as foodstuffs, or by consuming the L-fucose compounds or the seaweed itself in supplemental form; although the latter should be taken alongside food.

Follow this Page for updates

Also Known As

Fucus Vesiculosis


Things to Note

  • Components of bladderwrack (fucoxanthine, fucoidins, and fucophlorethols) are fat/ethanol soluble in nature, and should be consumed via food (Seaweed) or with food.
  • Although the high fiber content of seaweed can theoretically inhibit uptake of lipophilic molecules (by excreting them in the feces via bile salts), the lipophilic components of seaweed appear to be taken up well in the gut when ingested via foods.
  • Bladderwrack is but one species of brown seaweed, and is the most notable due to being the first on the thyroid scence. Other species may have different or better effects.

Although there is not a large amount of evidence currently, the evidence in humans has noted that 500mg of bladderwrack (basic extract of the seaweed, not concentrated) appears to be bioactive. This is a lower dose than the 4,000mg used in studies on Ascophyllum nodosum, and due to their similar composition the ideal range may be somewhere in between these two doses (or above 4,000mg).


The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what effect Bladderwrack has in your body, and how strong these effects are.
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
EffectChange
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
CSkin Quality

Minor

Limited evidence supports its efficacy, difficult to assess potency due to no reference drug.

CBlood Glucose

Minor

Appears somewhat potent at acutely reducing blood glucose following a meal (possibly by inhibiting absorption) but no long term studies.

CInsulin

Minor

Appears to reduce insulin AUC after a carbohydrate containing meal

CInsulin Sensitivity

Minor

Appears to be pretty effective at increasing insulin sensitivity acutely after a meal, which may be due to reduced insulin in serum.


Studies Excluded from Consideration

  • This study due to being highly confounded with other nutrients[1]

Disagree? Join the Bladderwrack Discussion

Table of Contents:


Edit1. Sources and Composition

1.1. Sources

Bladderwrack (Fucus vseiculosus) is a brown edible seaweed commonly used as a herbal anti-obesity and health supplement and in treating goitre. It is reported to be the first source of iodine discovered and thus renowned for treatment of thyroid disorders.[2]

Its brown coloration comes from the pigment Fucoxanthin, although it is in too low of levels to exert effects commonly associated with fucoxanthine supplementation.[3] A similar compound, fucoidan, is found in bladderwrack.[4] It has a chemical structure similar to heparin, an injectible anti-coagulant. Bladderwrack also has a fucophlorethol content (and a compound known as fucotriphlorethol A).[5]

1.2. Composition and Structures

Fucus vesiculosus contains the following active ingredients:

  • Fucoxanthin
  • Fucophlorethol compounds (Fucotriphlorethol A)
  • Several Phlorotannins[6]
  • Polysaccharides containing Fucose, a monosaccharide, and sulfur.[7] FCSPs may be limited to brown seaweed, or the Phaeophyceae class[7] and are also called Fucoidans
  • Possible bioaccumulation of minerals, quantities unpredictable[8][9]
High probability of the prefix of fuco- being used to identify compounds from seaweed

Phlorotannins are a class of molecules that are based on the backbone of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) and, currently, are only known to be in the brown seaweed class of plants (Phaeophyceae).[10] Their structures are building block in nature (similar to lignans and terpenes) and thought to be created in this class of seaweed by a polyketide pathway,[11] phlorotannins can be subdivided based on the bonds they possess, such as aryl-aryl bonds (fucols) and arylether bonds (phlorethols).[10][11] Some examples of Phlorotannin structures are depicted below:

Relative to the other seaweed species of Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Ascophyllum nodosum and Saccharina longicruris it appears Bladderwrack has a significnantly higher content of low-weight phlorotannin structure s(either phloroglucinol in isolation, or smaller structure sizes).[10]

Phlorotannins are a unique class of molecules limited to brown seaweed (the plant class of Phaeophyceae, not limited to Bladderwrack), but are currently not too well studied

Fucoidans are a blanket statement to address some of the carbohydrates of seaweed. Fucoidans are polysaccharides with the main backbone consisting of either 1-3 linked fucopyranosyl residues or an alteranting 1-3 and 1-4 chain of the same residues.[7] Short fucoside or sulfate substitutions can exist at C-2 or C-4, and some other minor substitutions (acetate, xylose, mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose, or glucose) may be present,[12][13][14] and the sulfur content of Bladderwrack fucoidans has been calculated to be 38.4%.[15] Fucoidans tend to be implicated in aspects of immunology and cancer as it pertains to brown seaweed, and those in brown seaweed may also be implicated in maintenance of blood health (in regards to clotting).

Fucoidans are bioactive carbohydrate compounds, classified as dietary fiber due to an apparent lack of absorption, which are involved with immunology in similar manners as Beta-glucans, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, and Panax ginseng polysaccharides


Edit2. Pharmacology

Limited pharmacological data exists on bladderwrack constituents; Fucoxanthin can be reviewed through its respective Examine page.

Initially thought to be physiologically irrelevant due to their high molecular weight (and lack of subsequent intestinal uptake), fucoidans appear to be digested.[16] Fucoidans seem to be present in the blood 6-9 hours after human ingestion[17]; their presence in the blood is of similar molecular weight to pure fucoidin used in in vitro studies and suggests that extrapolation to human is possible.

Differences in blood levels were noted between groups by factors of 100-1000 fold.[17] The lower concentration was seen with a 1g dose taken once a day and measured for one day[17], whereas the higher blood concentration was seen with multiple doses and measured over 12 days.[16] There appears to, at this stage in time, be a high inter-individual variation in the rate of uptake in the gut and debate on bioavailability.

Urinary excretion of fucoidans are of lower molecular weight than serum, suggesting degradation of the fucoidan molecule in the excretion system.[17]


Edit3. Fat Mass and Obesity

3.1. Thyroid function

Bladderwrack is most commonly known for its pro-thyroid effects, which may be confounded by it being the first discovery of iodine (of which a deficiency causes goitre).[2]

3.2. Independent of the Thyroid

The Fucoxanthin component of bladderwrack theoretically contributes to thermogenesis, but the overall dose found in this species is negligible (as Undaria Pinnatifida is the species of seaweed with the highest fucoxanthine content and bladderwrack is Fucus vesiculosus).

Fucoidans can inhibit adipogenesis[18] and adipocyte differentiation[19] via MAPK signalling. At cellular (in vitro) concentrations of 200ug/mL, it can induce lipolysis and simultaneously reduce adipocyte glucose uptake.[20]


Edit4. Interactions with Hormones

4.1. Estrogen

In a preliminary human trial (n=3), bladderwrack consumption was shown to regulate and increase the length of the menstrual cycle in pre-menopausal women with abnormal cycle histories.[21] This study also noted a decrease in serum 17b-estradiol levels. This reduction of estrogen levels may be secondary to fucophorethols, which possess anti-aromatase activity.[5]

It is theorized that brown seaweed consumption may be a factor in the longer menstrual cycles and lower estrogen levels seen in Asian women relative to North American women[22][23] which was initially attributed to Soy.[24][25]


Edit5. Interactions with Cardiac Health

5.1. Blood Pressure and Coagulation

Fucoidins, a class of compounds in bladderwrack with an L-fucose structure and sulfate ester groups[26] that share the same biological properties[27], have a 2.3 fold higher anti-coagulant potency than Heparin in vivo[4] at 0.5-1mg/kg bodyweight. Additionally (relative to heparin) fucoidin was 2.8 times as effective in preventing ADP-induced platlet aggregation, and more effective at both anti-coagulation and anti-thrombin as well as inhibiting several pro-inflammatory cytokines.[4] Although the only current in vivo study, the results have been replicated numerous times in vitro.[28][29][30][31]

Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame) is also found to induce ACE inhibition and lower blood pressure, and may be vicarious through shared compounds in Bladderwrack.[32]

5.2. Lipoproteins and Cholesterol

Bladderwrack consumption is associated with reduced serum cholesterol levels via dietary intake.[33]

5.3. Advanced Glycemic End Products

Advanced Glycemic End Products (AGEs) are metabolic by-products when proteins get glycated (bound to by a sugar). The formation occurs when the reducing sugar and the amino acids bind (reversibly), followed by passive cyclization into N-Substituted glycosylamine compounds (still reversible). Finally, Amadori rearrangements create relatively stable Amadori products (not inherently harmful).[34] Breakdown of Amadori of Schiff products results in reactive dicarbonyl groups or reactive carbonyl groups such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone, which then bind to amino acids and proteins to form AGEs (specifically glyoxal and methylglyoxal).[35][36] AGEs tend to be correlated with many disease states such as diabetes[37] and Alzheimer's[38] and are generally increased during aging,[38] AGE reduction tends to be seen as a therapeutic intervention point.

Phlorotannins from Bladderwrack have been demonstrated to inhibit formation of AGEs secondary to anti-oxidative effects, by sequestering reactive carbonyl groups.[39] Using the most effective fraction to extract the phlorotannins from Bladderwrack (70% acetone), sequestering of methylglyoxal (reactive carbonyl groups) were seen with an EC50 value of 0.393+/-0.0127mg/mL.[39]


Edit6. Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

6.1. Absorption

Bladderwrack has been implicated in reducing carbohydrate uptake from the diet, as hypothesized in the one human study on the subject matter (although a fecal analysis was not conducted).[40]

6.2. Serum

Consumption of 500mg brown seaweed (in this study, either bladderwrack or Ascophyllum nodosum) 30 minutes before consumption of 50g carbohydrate from bread products was able to reduce the insulin area-under-curve (AUC) by 12.1% and the glucose AUC by 9%, without no significant differences in glucose or insulin readings between placebo and experimental at any single time point (but cumulative significance over 120 minutes).[40] As assessed by the Cederholm index of insulin sensitivity (measure of acute insulin sensitivity[41]) bladderwrack was able to induce a transient state of insulin sensitivity after consumption of carbohydrates, which is thought to be secondary to preventing carbohydrate uptake.[40] More significant reductions in glucose AUC (18-30%) have been observed in research animals with 5mg/kg polysaccharides after intravenous administration, ruling out inhibition of intestinal absorption; this effect was more potent in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, a research model for type 1 diabetes.[42]


Edit7. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-carcinogenesis

7.1. Cancer

The fucoidan class of polysaccharides is known to act as enhancers of natural immunity secondary to increasing Natural Killer Cell (NK cell) activity,[43] and this appears to extend to Bladderwrack.[15] 50mg/kg bodyweight fucoidans injected daily in mice increased the amount of NK cell activity in the spleen, and the cytotoxitiy of NK cells increased by 14+/-3.8% with Bladderwrack fucoidans relative to a 5.1+/-2.1% increase in control. Poly I:C was used as an active control, and increased activity by 26+/-9%.[15]

7.2. Oxidation

All subsets of compounds in bladderwrack possess anti-oxidative abilities (fucophlorethols[5], fucoidans[44], fucoxanthine[45]) and anti-inflammatory properties(fucoidans[46], and fucoxanthine[47][48]).

Consumption of seaweed can also prevent uptake of fat soluble, non-metabolizable toxins (in this cited example, dioxins) and increase their excretion rates via enterohepatic recirculation.[49] These effects are seen at a physiologically relevant dose of 4g wakame.


Edit8. Interactions with Aesthetics

8.1. Skin and Cellulite

Bladderwrack (0.1%) has been shown to, in vitro, enhance glycerol release from fat cells (adipocytes) and was synergistic in a mixture of Conjugated Linoleic Acid at 0.003%, Furcelleria lumbricalis at 0.1%, retinol at 0.5uM, and glaucine at 0.1%;[1] reaching about double the glycerol release as the mathematicall sum of each molecule in isolation. Bladderwrack and the other seaweed (furcelleria lumbricalis) appeared to be the weakest relative to the other tested molecules in glycerol release, and the two (or more) molecules causative of synergism was not demonstrated.

Bladderwrack has the ability yo stimulate pro‐collagen I production (fibroblasts) by 228% (greater than retinol at 190%) as does furcelleria Lumbricalis, and were active ingredients in a highly confounded mixture of molecules that showed efficacy in reducing cellulite (all the aforementioned ingredients, plus Caffeine).[1] A decrease in skin thickness was observed in this study, and it has also been noted with 1% Bladderwrack cream when tested in humans before, where improvements in skin elasticity were also observed on the cheeks of females aged 23-36 over 5 weeks.[50] These beneficial effects on skin appear to be due to the fucoidan content.[51]


Edit9. Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions

9.1. Lipolysis

One study which happened to use a mixture of ingredients (retinol at 0.5uM, Conjugated Linoleic Acid at 0.003%, glaucine at 0.1% and both furcelleria lumbricalis and Bladderwrack at 0.1% each) found significant synergism when put into adipocytes, as the release of glycerol (a measure of triglyceride hydrolysis inside the cell) from the adipocytes was approximately double the sum of each individual ingredient.[1] The authors did not narrow down which of the above molecules were synergistic.

Although the each synergistic mechanisms are not know, CLA seems to be a promising candidiate. This is based on Fucoxanthin being demonstratably synergistic with Punicic Acid that has mechanisms akin to CLA. However, the degree of synergism seen here is much greater, suggesting another player is involved


Edit10. Safety and Toxicology

The Fucoxanthin and fucoidan fragments have high toxicity thresholds, and do not seem capable of inducing toxicity in physiologically relevant dosages.[52][53] It should be noted that these two studies used Undaria Pinnitafida and that various species of seaweed have different structural fucoidans.[54] Fucoidans from Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame) show no adverse effects on clotting even at 1-2g a day, whereas fucoidans from Laminaria japonica (Kombu) show prolonged clotting time during bleeding at doses of 300mg/kg bodyweight; still a physiologically high number, but is different than the former species.[55] The species of Okinawa Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus) shows prolonged time to clotting at a dose of 1,200mg/kg bodyweight.[56]

References

  1. Effect of cosmetic ingredients as anticellulite agents: synergistic action of actives with in vitro and in vivo efficacy
  2. Moro CO, Basile G. Obesity and medicinal plants. Fitoterapia. (2000)
  3. Saha M, et al. Surface-associated fucoxanthin mediates settlement of bacterial epiphytes on the rockweed Fucus vesiculosus. Biofouling. (2011)
  4. Kwak KW, et al. Biological effects of fucoidan isolated from Fucus vesiculosus on thrombosis and vascular cells. Korean J Hematol. (2010)
  5. Parys S, et al. In vitro chemopreventive potential of fucophlorethols from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. by anti-oxidant activity and inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes. Phytochemistry. (2010)
  6. Wang T, et al. Antioxidant Capacities of Phlorotannins Extracted from the Brown Algae Fucus vesiculosus. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  7. Ale MT, et al. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds inhibit proliferation of melanoma cells and induce apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 in vitro. Mar Drugs. (2011)
  8. Holan ZR, Volesky B. Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae. Biotechnol Bioeng. (1994)
  9. Ryan S, McLoughlin P, O'Donovan O. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed. Environ Pollut. (2012)
  10. Steevensz AJ, et al. Profiling phlorotannins in brown macroalgae by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Phytochem Anal. (2012)
  11. Defensive and Sensory Chemical Ecology of Brown Algae
  12. Duarte ME, et al. Structural studies on fucoidans from the brown seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum. Carbohydr Res. (2001)
  13. Chemical Characterization of Acetyl Fucoidan and Alginate from Commercially Cultured Cladosiphon okamuranus
  14. ChemInform Abstract: Structural Analysis of Fucoidans
  15. Ale MT, et al. Fucoidan from Sargassum sp. and Fucus vesiculosus reduces cell viability of lung carcinoma and melanoma cells in vitro and activates natural killer cells in mice in vivo. Int J Biol Macromol. (2011)
  16. Irhimeh MR, et al. A quantitative method to detect fucoidan in human plasma using a novel antibody. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (2005)
  17. Tokita Y, et al. Development of a fucoidan-specific antibody and measurement of fucoidan in serum and urine by sandwich ELISA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2010)
  18. Kim KJ, Lee OH, Lee BY. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits adipogenesis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Life Sci. (2010)
  19. Kim MJ, Chang UJ, Lee JS. Inhibitory effects of Fucoidan in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Mar Biotechnol (NY). (2009)
  20. Park MK, Jung U, Roh C. Fucoidan from marine brown algae inhibits lipid accumulation. Mar Drugs. (2011)
  21. Skibola CF. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report. BMC Complement Altern Med. (2004)
  22. Shimizu H, et al. Serum oestrogen levels in postmenopausal women: comparison of American whites and Japanese in Japan. Br J Cancer. (1990)
  23. Key TJ, et al. Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain. Br J Cancer. (1990)
  24. Cassidy A, Bingham S, Setchell KD. Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  25. Lu LJ, et al. Decreased ovarian hormones during a soya diet: implications for breast cancer prevention. Cancer Res. (2000)
  26. Li B, et al. Fucoidan: structure and bioactivity. Molecules. (2008)
  27. Cumashi A, et al. A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antiadhesive activities of nine different fucoidans from brown seaweeds. Glycobiology. (2007)
  28. Mourão PA. Use of sulfated fucans as anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents: future perspectives. Curr Pharm Des. (2004)
  29. Dürig J, et al. Anticoagulant fucoidan fractions from Fucus vesiculosus induce platelet activation in vitro. Thromb Res. (1997)
  30. Church FC, et al. Antithrombin activity of fucoidan. The interaction of fucoidan with heparin cofactor II, antithrombin III, and thrombin. J Biol Chem. (1989)
  31. Nishino T, Nagumo T. Anticoagulant and antithrombin activities of oversulfated fucans. Carbohydr Res. (1992)
  32. Sato M, et al. Antihypertensive effects of hydrolysates of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and their angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Ann Nutr Metab. (2002)
  33. Ara J, et al. Hypolipidaemic activity of seaweed from Karachi coast. Phytother Res. (2002)
  34. Neglia CI, et al. 13C NMR investigation of nonenzymatic glucosylation of protein. Model studies using RNase A. J Biol Chem. (1983)
  35. Petersen DR, Doorn JA. Reactions of 4-hydroxynonenal with proteins and cellular targets. Free Radic Biol Med. (2004)
  36. Negre-Salvayre A, et al. Advanced lipid peroxidation end products in oxidative damage to proteins. Potential role in diseases and therapeutic prospects for the inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol. (2008)
  37. Ahmed N. Advanced glycation endproducts--role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (2005)
  38. Münch G, et al. Advanced glycation endproducts in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. (1997)
  39. Liu H, Gu L. Phlorotannins from brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation endproducts by scavenging reactive carbonyls. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  40. Paradis ME, Couture P, Lamarche B. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2011)
  41. Cederholm J, Wibell L. Insulin release and peripheral sensitivity at the oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (1990)
  42. Lamela M, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of several seaweed extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. (1989)
  43. Maruyama H, et al. The role of NK cells in antitumor activity of dietary fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (Mekabu). Planta Med. (2006)
  44. Wang J, et al. Potential antioxidant and anticoagulant capacity of low molecular weight fucoidan fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica. Int J Biol Macromol. (2010)
  45. Ravi Kumar S, Narayan B, Vallikannan B. Fucoxanthin restrains oxidative stress induced by retinol deficiency through modulation of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase {corrected} and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Eur J Nutr. (2008)
  46. Li C, et al. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae, against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats via regulating the inflammation response. Food Chem Toxicol. (2011)
  47. Heo SJ, et al. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of fucoxanthin isolated from brown algae in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Food Chem Toxicol. (2010)
  48. Kim KN, et al. Fucoxanthin inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eur J Pharmacol. (2010)
  49. Morita K, Nakano T. Seaweed accelerates the excretion of dioxin stored in rats. J Agric Food Chem. (2002)
  50. Fujimura T, et al. Treatment of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus changes its thickness and mechanical properties. J Cosmet Sci. (2002)
  51. Fujimura T, et al. Fucoidan is the active component of fucus vesiculosus that promotes contraction of fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Biol Pharm Bull. (2000)
  52. Chung HJ, et al. Toxicological evaluation of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifidain vitro and in vivo. Phytother Res. (2010)
  53. Kim KJ, et al. A 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of fucoidan from the Sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology. (2010)
  54. Zhuang C, et al. Antitumor active fucoidan from the brown seaweed, umitoranoo (Sargassum thunbergii). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (1995)
  55. Li N, Zhang Q, Song J. Toxicological evaluation of fucoidan extracted from Laminaria japonica in Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. (2005)
  56. Gideon TP, Rengasamy R. Toxicological evaluation of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus. J Med Food. (2008)

(Common misspellings for Bladderwrack include Bladder wrack, wraack, rack, bladerwrack, bladderrack)

(Common phrases used by users for this page include why is bladder wrack called bladder wrack, http://examine.com/supplements/Bladderwrack/, fucus vesiculosus (also known as bladderwrack) and laminaria japonica,, bladderwrack iodine content, bladderwrack for thyroid, bladderwrack dosage how)

(Users who contributed to this page include )