Black Pepper

Black Pepper is a source of piperine, a molecule that does not do much on its own but can inhibit enzymes that would attack other molecules. Due to this, it is ingested alongside some supplements to increase their absorption rates and is almost always consumed with Curcumin.

This page features 13 unique references to scientific papers.

Summary

All Essential Benefits/Effects/Facts & Information

In Progress


This page on Black Pepper is currently marked as in-progress. We are still compiling research.



Black Pepper is a spice commonly used in many areas of the world for flavor. Through its active component Piperine, Black Pepper is able to modify supplement and drug metabolism.

A process in the liver called glucuronidation, which attaches a molecule (glucuronide) to drugs to signal for their urinary excretion, is inhibited with piperine. This process prevents excessive levels of drugs and supplements in the body, but sometimes inhibits all uptake and renders some supplements useless. In the scenario of piperine ingestion, excretion of supplements is hindered and certain drugs and supplements can bypass this regulatory stage (as not all are subject to it).

This is good in some cases, as Piperine is required to give Curcumin to the extremities rather than it getting consumed by glucuronidation in the liver. However, in some other cases it can lead to elevated levels of certain drugs in the blood. Again, elevated could be good or bad depending on context; regardless, caution should be taken when approaching this compound.

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Things To Know

Also Known As

Piper Nigrum, Piperaceae, Piperine

Do Not Confuse With

Red Pepper, Capsaicinoids

Things to Note

  • Piperine inhibits drug detoxifying enzymes. This typically increases bioavailability of any compound which would normally be attacked by said enzymes. This can be good (ie. Curcumin, EGCG) or it can be bad by stopping a protective measure against toxic xenobiotics.

Is a Form Of

Goes Well With

(Note: Synergistic in this sense means that the inhibition of glucuronidation results in an effect which is typically seen as favorable)

Does Not Go Well With

(Note: Antagonism in this sense means that the inhibition of glucuronidation results in an effect which is typically seen as detrimental)

Caution Notice

If using any drugs or pharmaceuticals, check with your MD before supplementing anything with Piperine in it in high quantities.

Examine.com Medical Disclaimer

How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

The usage of black pepper extract for the purpose of enhancing the absorption of other supplements that are glucuronidated (for example, Curcumin) tends to call for 20mg of the bioactive piperidine.

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1Sources and Pharmacology

Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum) is a common spice and herb used historically for various diseases related to gastrointesinal disorder and dental or oral dysfunction.[1] It is most commonly known in the supplemental realm for its piperine content, but also contains pellitorine, guineensine, pipnoohine, trichostachine, and piperonal.[1]


2Enterohepatic Effects

Piperine is known for changing metabolism of various drugs and supplements, most notably increasing Curcumin bioavailability by 2000%.[2] It affects metabolism by both intestinal absorption as well as downregulating or inhibiting phase II detoxification enzymes and the glucuronidation process in the liver.[3] It may also contribute to increase absorption by slowing intestinal transit rate and thus prolonging the time said compounds are exposed to the potential uptake.[4]


3Gastric and Systemic Effects

Piperine is able to slow both gastric emptying and intestinal transit at doses of 1mg/kg-1.3mg/kg bodyweight.[4] In higher doses, it can induce gastric acid secretion possibly via agonism of gastric histamine H2 receptors.[5]


4Safety and toxicity

There exist preliminary evidence that black pepper as a food substance poses carcinogenic effects via some procarcingenic constituents such as safrole and tannins, and some terpene compounds. These procarcinogenic effects were noted with topical application.[6]: Evidence of carcinogenicity]. These effects, however, were not noted with oral ingestion[7] despite rodent hypersensitivity to piperine.[8]

It is generally recognized as safe for human consumption.[9]

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

References

  1. Rao VR, et al Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA . Nat Prod Res. (2011)
  2. Shoba G, et al Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers . Planta Med. (1998)
  3. Han HK The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs . Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. (2011)
  4. Bajad S, et al Piperine inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats and mice . Planta Med. (2001)
  5. Ononiwu IM, Ibeneme CE, Ebong OO Effects of piperine on gastric acid secretion in albino rats . Afr J Med Med Sci. (2002)
  6. Black pepper [piper nigrum
  7. Lack of Adverse Influence of Black Pepper, Its Oleoresin and Piperine in the Weanling Rat
  8. Piyachaturawat P, Glinsukon T, Toskulkao C Acute and subacute toxicity of piperine in mice, rats and hamsters . Toxicol Lett. (1983)
  9. Srinivasan K Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects . Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2007)
  10. Writing Group for the NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) Investigators, et al Effect of creatine monohydrate on clinical progression in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial . JAMA. (2015)
  11. Taylor MJ1, et al Folate for depressive disorders . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2003)
  12. Godfrey PS1, et al Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate . Lancet. (1990)
  13. Kushwaha S1, Chawla P1, Kochhar A1 Effect of supplementation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves powder on antioxidant profile and oxidative status among postmenopausal women . J Food Sci Technol. (2014)

(Common misspellings for Black Pepper include blck, back, peper, peppr, piprine, piperne, pipern, piprin)

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