1,3-Dimethylamylamine

1,3-DMAA is a neural stimulant with a structure similar to Ephedrine and adrenaline that has been used as a pre-workout stimulant. Not much information is available on 1,3-DMAA supplementation, and is no longer commonly sold as a supplement.

This page features 8 unique references to scientific papers.


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DMAA is a neurological stimulant which causes a quick spike of energy similar to Caffeine and other classical stimulants, but does so by different mechanisms in the brain.

It was first introduced as a nasal decongestant as 'Germanium Oil Extract' but more recently is used as a neurological stimulant and party pill.

Due to its structural similarity to amphetamines, it gives a false positive in drug tested competitions for amphetamines and thus should not be used by competing athletes.

It is not a highly studied compound in isolation.

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Also Known As

4-methylhexan-2-amine, DMAA, Dimethylamylamine, 1,3-DMAA, Geranamine, Methylhexaneamine, 1,3-Dimethylpentylamine, Forthane


Do Not Confuse With

DMAE, DHEA, Memantine (Same acronym, different compound)


Things to Note

DMAA is highly stimulatory.

Is a Form of


Caution Notice

DMAA may cause a false positive for amphetamines in urine testing.

The World Anti-Doping Agency has added methylhexanamine to the 2010 prohibited list, and while usage of 1,3-DMAA in the american military appears to be restricted[1] the Australian government has classified DMAA as a Schedule 9 substance (2012) and prohibits its sales.[2]

Examine.com Medical Disclaimer

A typical starting dose of 1,3-DMAA is in the 10-20mg range and eventually reaching up to 40-60mg a day, there is no actual evidence to support this dosage range but it seems to be the standard dosages range for supplemental 1,3-DMAA on the market.

1,3-DMAA is known to be banned by various sports organizations due to its amphetamine-like nature, and should not be used by tested athletes.


Although there are many anecdotes of the efficacy of 1,3-DMAA, most (if not all) of the science is extrapolated from other compounds which act in a similar manner.

Although the compounds are very similar and this extrapolation should be relatively valid, some degree of caution should still be exerted until some studies on the 1,3-DMAA molecule itself are published.


Kurtis Frank

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what effect 1,3-Dimethylamylamine has in your body, and how strong these effects are.
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
EffectChange
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
CBlood Pressure

Notable

The increase in blood pressure with 1,3-DMAA was fairly notable and of concern, with 75mg paired with caffeine (common in preworkout supplements) increasing systolic by up to 20%.

CHeart Rate

No significant effect on heart rate noted with DMAA supplementation despite the increase in blood pressure.


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Table of Contents:


Edit1. Structure and Function

DMAA is a straight chain, 7 carbon, aliphitic amine with a structural similarity to amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA.[3] It was first introduced as a nasal decongestant[4] but more recently is used as a neurological stimulant and party pill.

DMAA also shares structural similarity to Propylhexedrine, a stimulant drug and nasodilator which may have fat-burning effects in vivo.

Due to its structural similarities, its mechanism of action may be as an adrenaline mimetic; inducing the same effects as adrenaline and the preceding compounds in vivo. However, direct studies on the pharmacokinetics of DMAA metabolism do not exist.


Edit2. Safety and Legality

2.1. Acute safety

Although seemingly well tolerated in pre-workout supplemental form, DMAA has been linked to a cerebral haemorrhage in a case study with party pill usage.[5]

No long-term toxicity studies are in existence, although acute LD50 of DMAA has been established at 39mg/kg bodyweight intravenous injection and 185mg/kg bodyweight intraperitoneal injection.[6] Theoretically well below what can be achieved via oral ingestion.

2.2. Legality

DMAA, touted as being a component of geraniums, has been failed to be detected in geranium oil in one independent lab analysis.[7]

2.3. Drug Testing in Competitions

DMAA causes a false positive for amphetamines in drug-tested sports competitions and should not be used by athletes being moderated by a drugs ethics association.[3]


Edit3. Effect on Blood Pressure

DMAA alone and in combination with Caffeine has been shown in a double blind trial to significantly increase blood pressure, but had not effect on heart rate.[8]

References

  1. Military probe adding to skepticism of DMAA
  2. Theraputic Goods Administration Interim Decision
  3. Vorce SP, et al. Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol. (2011)
  4. [No authors listed. NEW and nonofficial remedies: methylhexamine; forthane. J Am Med Assoc. (1950)
  5. Gee P, Jackson S, Easton J. Another bitter pill: a case of toxicity from DMAA party pills. N Z Med J. (2010)
  6. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (Book)
  7. Lisi A, et al. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil. Drug Test Anal. (2011)
  8. Bloomer RJ, et al. Effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone or in combination on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Phys Sportsmed. (2011)

(Common misspellings for 1,3-Dimethylamylamine include dimethylamine, dimethylamylamin, dimethlamilamine, dimethlamylamine)

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