This FAQ was tweeted by Martin Berkhan, so you can rely on its contents.
A phrase coined by Martin Berkhan, LeanGains is a diet/workout methodology based on intermittent fasting (IF) and lifting heavy weights. It is meant to be a way of body recomposition - losing fat and gaining muscle/strength at the same time.
IF is essentially a self-contained cut-bulking cycle. You eat for X hours, and fast (no calories) for Y hours (with Y > X). For example, the Warrior Diet has you fast for 20 hours and eat for 4. Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) has you eat 24 hours, and then fast for 24 hours.
In LG, you fast for roughly 16 hours and eat for 8. For women fasting 14 hours and eating for 10 is recommended.
Having zero calorie gum, diet soda, and coffee is okay. The caloric load of anything you ingest should essentially be zero. Contrary to popular belief, diet soda is not bad for you.
There are a boatload of health benefits from IF. LeanGains is a system that incorporates a version of IF, extending it to include timing of calories (a majority to be consumed post-workout), macros (high protein), and workout (lift heavy). It is not the definition of IF.
You can add an IF schedule to most any other diet plan. It's fine. Give it a shot if you want.
Martin has not explicitly outlined his workout, but the general schedule is:
My own is found here. Another great outline can be found here.
You should ensure at least 2 days of rest between any sets of squats and deadlifts.
The general suggestion is between 2-3 sets per exercise, RPT for only 1 or 2 exercises, and also adequate rest between each set (at least 3 minutes, 5+ for deadlifts).
Negative. The Big 4 hammer the hell out of your entire body. Martin always says that he got his guns from deadlifts and close-grip weighted chinups.
Reverse Pyramid Training.
Basically do X # of reps for Z weight. Next set, do (Z-10%) weight for X+1 reps. Next set, do (Z-20%) for X+2 reps. Alternatively, you can do (Z-5%) weight for X reps.
An example to elucidate:
Remember for chinups that the weight is any weight you have attached to you plus bodyweight. So if you weigh 150lb and do chinups with 50lb attached (total weight=200lb, 10%=20lb), next set you should do chinups with 30lb attached to you.
So in the original guide it states: I would say 10-12% body fat is an appropriate starting point to pull this off with the greatest efficiency.
This does not mean that it isn't worth at a higher body fat percentage. Simply put, as you get to a lower BF %, it becomes harder to lose that fat. The LG approach can help you break that 10% threshold. LG is still effective even if you are 45% BF.
High protein intake. The minimum is at least 2.5 grams of protein per kg of total bodyweight, and 3g+/kg of bodyweight is encouraged. On workout days, consume moderate/high carbs (in the post workout window) and low fat. On non-workout days, lower carbs higher fats.
It keeps you full (satiated). And it has a high thermal effect (to get into it, the Atwater-formula from the 19th century states that 1g protein = 4 kcal energy. Factoring in TEF, it can be argued that the net effect of each gram of protein is really 3-3.2 kcal/gram).
Be patient! After several days of sticking to the fasting routine you'll find it gets easier. Many people also find that moderate Caffeine intake (e.g. a cup of Coffee every few hours) helps suppress hunger through the morning's fast.
Listen to your body. Some people love squatting every day, other people can't stomach it. If IF doesn't work for you, so be it. It isn't the end of the world.
Martin prefers to workout fasted, except for ingesting BCAAs before working out. He also recommends putting the majority of calories in the post workout window.
At the same time, if you need to eat before working out ... then eat! Try to keep the carbs post workout, but again ... if you need carbs before you workout, then get some.
BCAAs are Branched Chain Amino Acids. They are a group of 3 amino acids which work to alleviate or prevent muscle loss during intense and fasted exercise, with Leucine being a very important amino acid.
To simplify, BCAAs are source of fuel/energy for your body when working out to ensure no muscle loss happens.
If you prefer Whey Protein, take it. If you have eaten, BCAAs are not needed.
As BCAAs are amino acids that make up protein, they definitely have caloric weight. Fasting is not an on/off switch - ingesting 10 calories won't suddenly turn fasting "off." Taking 10 grams of BCAA is ok.
+20% your maintenance calories on workout days, and -20% on rest days.
If you wish to focus on fat loss, -10% your maintenance calories on workout days, and -30% on rest days.
In reality, it really is a matter of preference.
If your body fat is above %15, then cutting is likely the way to go. If you are at a level of leanness you are happy with, try a recomp. If you want to put on muscle faster, do a bulk.
You have a window of eating (for most people, 8 hours). Get your calories in then. If you do 1 meal + a snack, or 3 meals, just do what works for you. Again, what matters is the overall amount of calories (based on maintenance) and macros (more carbs on workout days, more fat on non-workout, high protein all days).
Your metabolism is not really affected by the number of times you eat in a day.
Start with at least 2.5 grams of protein per kg of bodyweight (more is even recommended ... ideally 3g+/kg of bodyweight). On workout days, make the rest of your calories 75/25 carbs/fat, and on non-workout days make it 50/50 carbs/fat.
Check out this link for someone's macro breakdown.
A majority of your calories should come post workout (post workout refers to the feeding period after your workout, not within 30 minutes). A minimum of 60% is his recommendation.
Carbs are an essential part of muscle building. Starchy carbs are great for building muscle. Read what Lyle McDonald says about that. Carbs can make you fat ... if you overfeed on carbs chronically (we are talking about 700g+ a day for many days).
LG is not about just losing fat. It is about recomposition. So yes you can bulk - just eat above your maintenance.
LG will help you lose BF, and it will let you get to low BF% levels, but the overall focus is on recomposition. Martin has said that LG is essentially a self-contained cut/bulk - 16 hours of cut, 8 hours of bulk.
Cardio is an extremely over-reaching word. Martin is explicitly against doing intense cardio on workout days, saying that the anabolic reaction of lifting heavy weights is dented by the catabolic response to extended/intense cardio.
Martin also believes that for maximal fat loss, heavy weights + rest = success. If you want to throw in some conditioning, then do it on your off days.
If conditioning is important to you, then do it. If you are focusing on fat loss, Martin recommends sticking to just heavy weights.
At the same time, low impact steady state (LISS) cardio should be ok - aka walking. Do it before you break your fast.
Then do it. It is best to stick to roughly the same schedule as your body has a way of regulating itself. Fasting 18 hours one day and then 19 the next day won't kill you.
In general, it is not recommended that you "drink your calories."
Then again, do what makes you feel comfortable. This is meant to be something you can do long term.
Fish Oil could help you.
Martin has a post on supplements he likes
More info on them via Examine.com:
See this post on losing stubborn body fat. Yohimbine helps.
Stop worrying, and just try to stay the course. Everyone fails at times. Everyone.
Look, LG is simple. It is basically lifting heavy heavy stuff and fasting. Fasting has health benefits (eg it can help regulate blood glucose levels), but the biggest and obvious one is that it makes it hard to eat like a lardass. Having a stupid amount of calories is harder when you only have 8 hours to jam them in instead of 24 hours.
LeanGains won't magically make you ripped. It won't give you abs in 15 days.
LeanGains WILL make you stronger and leaner if you follow it. You have to have the mental fortitude to lift heavy stuff. The numbers listed aren't perfect, but you should be working towards at least the Advanced Levels of Strength.
Hard work is needed. LG just gives you the template to make it happen.
It happens to everyone. Here is your checklist, in order of priorities::
At the end of the day, LG is just one methodology. If it works for you, great. If you need to tweak it, then tweak it. If you want more hypertrophy, then increase the rep range a bit. If you play sports, add some conditioning on the off days. If you feel hungry all the time, add more calories. If you feel like garbage 2 weeks in, then maybe fasting isn't for you.